General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood

General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood

General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood

General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., adjutant-general in October 1897. He was responsible for the creation of the British army used in the Boer War.

Taken from The Times History of the War in South Africa, vol. II.

General Sir Evelyn Wood - The Crimea in 1854, and 1894 - 1896

A participant's highly detailed first-hand account of the Crimean War and the battles of the Alma, Sevastopol, Balaklava, Inkerman, and the conclusion of the war and death of Lord Raglan. The book was first published in 1895 and was occasioned by the author's return to the areas in which he fought, and he expresses severe criticism of the British government's mismanagement of the war.

Item Description
A fascinating and good copy with tissue-guarded portrait frontispiece of Captain William Peel, and a preface by Evelyn Wood. The book is illustrated with maps, 18 full page sketches and 8 in text. Published by Chapman & Hall, London, 1896. Original red boards lettered in gilt to spine and ruled and lettered in black to front board.

Book Dimensions: 21 x 15 cm & Number of Pages: 400

Solid and well bound volume. Light wear at extremities. Boards’ edges, and spine are darken with age. A dent mark on top of back cover (see photo 2). Internally the book in good+ condition. Foxing/ tanned marks on pages. All pages are tightly held at the gutter. Inner hinges are very good. The plates are clear and bright (Please see pictures).

“Field Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, VC, GCB, GCMG (9 February 1838 – 2 December 1919) was a British Army officer. After an early career in the Royal Navy, Wood joined the British Army in 1855. He served in several major conflicts including the Indian Mutiny. Wood further served as a commander in several other conflicts, notably the Third Anglo-Ashanti War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the First Boer War and the Mahdist War. His service in Egypt led to his appointment as Sirdar where he reorganised the Egyptian Army.”

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Catalogue description Field Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.B. (1872-1881) Field.

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Field Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.B. (1872-1881)

Field Marshal His Royal Highness Arthur William Patrick Albert Duke of Connaught and Strathearn K.G., K.T., K.P. G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., K.C.B. (1872-1885)

General Sir William Henry Mackinnon K.C.B., C.V.O. (1873-1900)

Field Marshal Lord Paul Sandford Methuen, G.C.B., K.C.V.O., C.M.G. (1873-1905)

Lieutenant Walter Hammond Norris. (1888-1890)

Field Marshal Lord John Denton Pinkstone French, K.P., G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G. (1891-1899)

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General Sir Evelyn Wood - The Crimea in 1854, and 1894 - 1896

A participant's highly detailed first-hand account of the Crimean War and the battles of the Alma, Sevastopol, Balaklava, Inkerman, and the conclusion of the war and death of Lord Raglan. The book was first published in 1895 and was occasioned by the author's return to the areas in which he fought, and he expresses severe criticism of the British government's mismanagement of the war.

Item Description
A fascinating and good copy with tissue-guarded portrait frontispiece of Captain William Peel, and a preface by Evelyn Wood. The book is illustrated with maps, 18 full page sketches and 8 in text. Published by Chapman & Hall, London, 1896. Original red boards lettered in gilt to spine and ruled and lettered in black to front board.

Book Dimensions: 21 x 15 cm & Number of Pages: 400

Solid and well bound volume. Light wear at extremities. Boards’ edges, and spine are darken with age. A dent mark on top of back cover (see photo 2). Internally the book in good+ condition. Foxing/ tanned marks on pages. All pages are tightly held at the gutter. Inner hinges are very good. The plates are clear and bright (Please see pictures).

“Field Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, VC, GCB, GCMG (9 February 1838 – 2 December 1919) was a British Army officer. After an early career in the Royal Navy, Wood joined the British Army in 1855. He served in several major conflicts including the Indian Mutiny. Wood further served as a commander in several other conflicts, notably the Third Anglo-Ashanti War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the First Boer War and the Mahdist War. His service in Egypt led to his appointment as Sirdar where he reorganised the Egyptian Army.”

General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood - History

MICHEL, Sir JOHN, soldier b. 1 Sept. 1804 in Dorset, England, son of Lieutenant-General John Michel and his second wife, Anne Fane d. 23 May 1886 at the family seat, Dewlish House, Dorchester, Dorset.

John Michel was educated at Eton, and entered the army as an ensign in 1823. Most of his early service was in the 64th Foot. It is clear that his career was assisted by family connections and family wealth but the fact that in 1832–33 he attended the senior department (later the staff college) of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, suggests a serious interest in his profession. From 1835 to 1840 he was aide-de-camp to his uncle, General Sir Henry Fane, who was commander-in-chief in India. On 15 May 1838 Michel married Louise Anne, a daughter of Colonel Chatham Horace Churchill, quartermaster general in India they were to have at least two sons and three daughters. In 1840 Michel purchased a majority in the 6th Foot, and two years later the lieutenant-colonelcy of that regiment. The 6th was sent to South Africa in August 1846, and Michel commanded it there in the Kaffir Wars of 1846–47 and 1851–53, sometimes serving as commander of independent columns. During this, his first active service, he showed himself an energetic leader. James McKay, a sergeant in the 74th Foot, who saw him at work (he calls him Mitchell), says he was “the beau ideal of an able campaigning commander” and “a father and friend” to his men. After a period of home service in the brevet rank of colonel, he took part in the Crimean War as chief of staff of the Turkish contingent that was taken into British pay, as a local major-general.

After a short period of service in the Cape Colony, Michel was ordered to China in 1857 but en route his ship was wrecked and he was subsequently diverted to India, where the mutiny had broken out. In the last stages of the mutiny in 1858–59 Michel, now a substantive major-general, successfully conducted the pursuit of Tantia Topi, defeating his forces in a series of engagements and reducing him to the status of a fugitive who was shortly caught and hanged. At the end of 1859 Michel was sent to command a division in the war with China. His division took part in successful actions in August 1860, and in October it fell to it to burn the Summer Palace at Peking in reprisal for the torture and murder of British prisoners. Having become a kcb for his work in the mutiny, Michel was now promoted to gcb .

In June 1865 he succeeded Lieutenant-General Sir William Fenwick Williams in the command of the forces in British North America (the appointment was officially styled lieutenant-general on the staff). He remained in this command until October 1867, and thus had to deal with the first and most serious phase of the Fenian troubles. Whenever the Fenian menace moved the government of the Province of Canada to call out units of the volunteer force for active duty, these were placed under Michel by order in council and he exercised command over regulars and volunteers alike. Nine companies of volunteers were so called out for frontier service in November 1865 at the same time Michel reinforced the regular garrison of London, Canada West, and took steps to improve the telegraph network in the eastern part of the upper province. In March 1866, 10,000 volunteers were called out (the actual number appearing for duty turned out to be 14,000), and in the crisis caused by the raids of June 1866 [see Alfred Booker*] the whole volunteer force of Canada, some 20,000 men, was called out and placed under Michel. He had asked for, and obtained, two more regular battalions from the United Kingdom in March 1866 and in August a panic caused in Canada West by renewed Fenian threats led Michel, in conjunction with Viscount Monck*, the governor general, to ask the British government for still larger reinforcements. These were sent, in numbers only slightly smaller than had been requested and in the spring of 1867 there were over 15,000 regulars under Michel’s command. Monck soon began to incline to the view that the force might be somewhat reduced but Michel opposed any reduction.

For two long periods, 30 Sept. 1865–12 Feb. 1866 and 10 Dec. 1866–25 June 1867, Michel was administrator of the government in Monck’s absence, though he did not move from his headquarters at Montreal. Writing to John A. Macdonald* in February 1866 to say that he expected raids and would like to see more volunteer companies called out, he said whimsically, “In writing this note, I am consulting with my Minister of War, giving him the opinions of the Commander of the Forces, which, as Administrator I think it would be desirable to carry out.” Generally speaking, Michel sought to prevail on the colonials to take on a larger share of the defence burden, while Canadian ministers, unwilling to incur expense, preferred to leave it with the regulars. Early in 1867 Alexander Campbell*, the acting minister of militia, wrote to Macdonald in England describing how Michel, on the basis of intelligence received, sent “of his own motion of course” Colonel Garnet Joseph Wolseley* to negotiate with General George Gordon Meade of the United States Army, and also asked Campbell to call out “the Volunteers.” Campbell politely demurred. In consequence, he wrote, “Our Volunteers are still sleeping with their wives to the great comfort of both and with great prospective benefit to the country.”

Michel was painfully aware of how inadequate and exposed were the country’s military communications. In August and September 1865, soon after his arrival in Canada, he made a reconnaissance by canoe, in company with Admiral Sir James Hope, commanding the Royal Navy’s American station, of the route between the St Lawrence and Lake Huron by the French River, Lake Nipissing, and the Mattawa and Ottawa rivers. He cautiously advised against either setting up a crown colony at Red River or uniting the Hudson’s Bay Company’s territories with Canada until “a safe communication for military purposes” was established with Upper Fort Garry (Winnipeg). In October 1865 he gave the engineer Casimir Stanislaus Gzowski* a letter to the colonial secretary explaining that he considered the Ottawa–French River navigation route, which Gzowski was promoting, vital to the country’s security. In a valedictory message to the Canadian people he urged the importance of this project. During his last months in Canada he expressed the opinion that the Fenian movement was now “torpid,” and also recorded an optimistic view of the prospects for Anglo-American peace. Michel’s Canadian command was cut short by concern for his wife’s health. When he left Montreal for England on 15 Oct. 1867, having been succeeded by Sir Charles Ash Windham*, he received addresses from the city corporation and the Montreal volunteers warmly praising his work as commander and administrator.

In 1873 Michel was placed in charge of the first “autumn manoeuvres” held in England, a development which can be traced to the influence of the Franco-Prussian War. From 1875 to 1880 he was commander-in-chief in Ireland, where his “social qualities and ample means” are said to have made him popular and where he became an Irish privy councillor (and thus Right Honourable). In March 1885, a little more than a year before his death, he was made a field-marshal.

Field-Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, who served under Michel in India as a subaltern, described him as “a clever, handsome, well-educated officer, a fine horseman, active and of great determination.” He served in Canada at a difficult and critical period, and his work seems to have been competently done. Campbell’s letter to Macdonald in 1867 suggests that the Canadian ministers tended to think him something of a fussbudget, but Macdonald wrote in 1866: “There is not a more active or zealous officer than Sir John Michel.”

PAC, MG 26, A, 57–59, 100 RG 7, G1, 163–65 G6, 16–17 G9, 44–47 G10, 1–2. Can., Parl., Sessional papers, 1867–68, VII, no.35. Can., Prov. of, Parl., Sessional papers, 1866, II, no.4. [J. A. Macdonald], Correspondence of Sir John Macdonald . . . , ed. Joseph Pope (Toronto, 1921). James McKay, Reminiscences of the last Kafir war, illustrated with numerous anecdotes (Grahamstown, South Africa, 1871 repr. Cape Town, 1970). G. J. Wolseley, Narrative of the war with China in 1860 . . . (London, 1862 repr. Wilmington, Del., 1972) The South African diaries of Sir Garnet Wolseley, 1875, ed. Adrian Preston (Cape Town, 1971). Montreal Gazette, 16 Oct. 1867. Times (London), 25 May 1886. The annual register: a review of public events at home and abroad (London), 1886. DNB. G. B., WO, Army list, 1824. Hart’s army list, 1852 1856 1866 1872. Notman and Taylor, Portraits of British Americans, II. Creighton, Macdonald, young politician. J. W. Fortescue, A history of the British army (13v. in 14 and 6v. maps, London, 1899–1930), XII–XIII. J. M. Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada, 1763–1871 ([Toronto]), 1968). A. J. Smithers, The Kaffir wars, 1779–1877 (London, 1973). C. P. Stacey, Canada and the British army, 1846–1871: a study in the practice of responsible government (London and Toronto, 1936 rev. ed., [Toronto], 1963). Evelyn Wood, The revolt in Hindustan, 1857–59 (London, 1908).

Historical Daly College, Indore founded by General Sir Henry Daly of British India

Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS, Viceroy and Governor-General of India : (1947�) was a prominent patron of this college.

Major Lord Willingdon, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, PC, BA (Cantab.), Viceroy and Governor-General of India : (1931�) was the last board of governors of this institution .

Presently, it is a major educational institute with a student strength of more than 2,000 students. and is currently ranked 6th in India (Central Board). The school is a co-educational, residential public school affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and to CIE aswell. In 2007 the first International Round Square Conference was held at Daly College, attended as its president by former King Constantine II of Greece. The Indian postal dept. issued a commemorative postal stamp on the institute in December, 2007.

General Redvers Buller

General Redvers Buller

Redvers Buller was born at Crediton, Devon, the son of MP James Wentworth Buller. Schooled at Eton he obtained a commission in the Kings Royal Rifle Corps in 1858 and took part in the Second Opium War with China. Following this he was promoted to captain before participating in the Canadian Red River Expedition of 1870 and then serving as intelligence officer under Lord Wolseley during the Ashanti campaign in present day Ghana.

During this campaign he was slightly wounded at the Battle of Ordabai and promoted to major and awarded the C.B.In 1878, he served in the 9th Cape Frontier War and in 1879, the Anglo-Zulu war in South Africa. In the Zulu war he commanded a mounted infantry unit under Sir Evelyn Wood where he was awarded the Victoria Cross at the British defeat at the Battle of Hlobane. Following this he participated in the British victory at the battle of Kambula leading a mounted pursuit of the fleeing Zulu’s. In the same year he again commanded mounted troops at the battle of Ulandi, a decisive victory for the British, which effectively ended the war. In 1881 Buller served in the First Boer War as chief of staff to Sir Evelyn Wood.

The following year he was again head of intelligence in the Egypt campaign and received a knighthood. That same year he married Audrey, the daughter of the 4th Marquess Townshend and was sent to the Sudan in command of an infantry brigade participating in the battles of El Teb and Tamai and the expedition to relieve General Gordon in 1885. On being promoted to major-general he was sent to Ireland in 1886 to head an inquiry into moonlighting by police personnel then returned to the Army as Quartermaster-General to the forces.

In 1890 he was promoted to Adjutant-General to the forces and became a lieutenant-general in 1891. Buller became head of the troops stationed at Aldershot in Hampshire in 1898 and the following year was sent as commander of the Natal field force at the outbreak of the Second Boer War. Defeats at the Battles of Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg raised concerns about his performance resulting in his being replaced as overall commander in South Africa in January, 1900 by Lord Roberts.

He remained as second in command and had further setbacks in his attempts to relieve Ladysmith at the battles of Spion Kop and Vaal Krantz earning him the nickname of ‘Reverse Buller’ by his troops. Buller was victorious in the Battle of Tugela Heights, lifting the siege on February 28, 1900. He was further successful in flanking Boer armies at Biggarsberg, Laing’s Nek and Lydenburg finally winning the Battle of Bergendal in the final action of the war. Buller returned to England to a hero’s welcome by the public and resumed his role as commanding officer in Aldershot. His early defeats in South Africa however had damaged his reputation especially within the Unionist government. When continuing guerrilla activities by the defeated Boers raised public concerns, the Minister of War, Sir John Brodrick and Lord Roberts sought a scapegoat. The matter came to a head when Buller provided a public rebuttal to a piece written in the Times. Broderick and Roberts summoned Buller to an interview on October 17, 1901 in which they demanded he resign on grounds of breaching military discipline. Buller refused and he was dismissed on half pay. His request for a court martial was refused as was his appeal to the King.

There were many expressions of sympathy and in 1905 a statue of Buller astride his horse was erected in Exeter near his hometown of Crediton. In 1903 Sir John Brodrick was removed from the war ministry and lost his parliamentary seat when the Liberals returned to power in 1906. The new government offered Buller a seat but he refused continuing to live in the family home in Crediton until his death in 1908.

1919 – 1940

The First World War hastened the modernisation of Cape Town. While its basic structures had already been set in place before the Great War, between 1919 and 1945 the town was transformed into an industrial city, particularly with the development of the docks and the growth of new manufacturing areas. These years also saw the introduction of many of the facilities and conveniences of modern life such as electricity, motorcars and the cinema. At the same time Cape Town grew into a new role as cultural, provincial and legislative capital. A monolithic Provincial Administration building replaced the Wale Street police court, which moved to Caledon Street, to the site of the old barracks.

In the Public Gardens the newly built National Gallery, fronted by a fishpond and a boulevard of war memorials, provided testimony to Cape Town’s status as cultural capital of South Africa. Cape Town was in the forefront setting the pace for other South African cities. The original Dock Road power station was opened in 1904 and its successor, built in 1908, became a prominent feature of the waterfront. (Where the Cullinan & Holiday Inn hotels now stand, at the entrance to the Waterfront)

For the first time since the early nineteenth century the number of blacks overtook that of whites. Most were coloured people but rural impoverishment also drove large numbers of Black to the western Cape. The influx too of ‘poor white’

Afrikaners gave a new profile to the working-class districts of Woodstock, Salt River and Observatory. Gardens, the residential area in the city, became another Afrikaner stronghold between the wars.

For black and white the experience of immigration was often similar. Their various customs and traditions severally and jointly helped dilute Cape Town’s Englishness. In District Six, for instance, coloured and white Afrikaner rural migrants rubbed shoulders with Jewish and Indian shopkeepers. West Indians introduced the language and ideas of African America and St Helenans lived cheek by jowl with Cape Muslims and the descendants of Filipino fishermen. As fishermen and cooks in boarding houses and hotels, Italians introduced Capetonians to the rich variety of fish off the Cape shores. At the time they only ate stockfish and snoek. The hotels had Italian chefs and Italian maitres d’hotel, so, through them, they brought crayfish, sole and calamari, onto the tables.

Apart from the West Europeans favoured by the official immigration policy, Jews were the largest group to enter the country in the twentieth century. The poorest established themselves in District Six or Woodstock and Salt River, moving later to Oranjezicht, Gardens and Tamboerskloof, or Sea Point. Many found it easier to assimilate in heterogeneous District Six than in white English-speaking Cape Town. Those who had already learnt the ropes passed the local lore and know-how on to newcomers. While the older people cherished the traditions of their homeland, younger people felt the tug of the modern world.

1923 The urban Areas act requires blacks to live in seperate areas to whites.

1924 August, Cape Town’s main war memorials, at the bottom of Adderley Street, opposite the Cape Town Station are unveiled.

In 1920 a site at the bottom of Adderley Street was chosen for Cape Town’s main war memorial. The memorial of two bronze figures on either side of a central needle. This supported the symbolic figure of Victory, modelled on the torso of the Winged Victory of Samothrace. At the base is a roll of honour, covered by a bronze door which has a bas-relief design of Delville Wood.

1925 May, A principal aspect of General Hertzog’s policy is achieved when Dutch is replaced by Afrikaans as one of the official languages of the Union of South Africa. It was done at a Joint Sitting of both Houses of Parliament .

1926 The Adderley Street fasade of the Old Supreme Court is set back 13,4 m. The work is done most meticulously and it is claimed that the present fasade is not only identical, but just as good as Thibault’s original work.

1929 The first section of the Shell Oil head office building on Greenmarket Square is completed. It was designed by WH Grant and completed in two phases. The second section was added in 1941. It became a hotel in 1980. This building, with its central clock tower, forms an important element in the architectural character of Greenmarket Square.

1929 The Cable Way, to the top of Table mountain, is completed. Until this time the mountain had been out of reach to all but the most energetic. The Table Mountain that was the closed preserve of the youthful in body and spirit, prepared to face an arduous climb. It was now accessible to all, without any climb at all.

1930 White South African women are given the vote.

1930 25 August The first of the new ‘trackless trams’, or trolley buses, arrive in Cape Town. They soon plied the thoroughfares of Pretoria and Durban as well as those of the Mother City. Special legislation was introduced to allow both single- and double-deckers on the streets. They enjoyed a five-metre play on either side and were more manoeuvrable – and a great deal quieter. Trolley buses remained a familiar city feature until the end of the 1950s.

1930 3rd of November, The SA National Gallery is opened by the Governor General, the Earl of Athlone. It is situated halfway up Government Avenue, on the left hand side.

By the late 1930s The New Year Carnival had become more formally organised. It persisted throughout the bleak years of the war. By then a Western Province Jubilee Carnival Board had been instituted to work for ‘the betterment of the Minstrels, to improve its organisation, and to keep it under Coloured’ control’.

During the war their garb took on Allied colours, with the Union Jack, the Union of South Africa flag, and the Stars and Stripes worked into the satin outfits which they wore as they sang patriotic songs.

Women had little place in the carnival, except in support roles.

1931 Construction of the Barclays Bank (First National Bank) in Adderley Street is completed. It was designed by Sir Herbert Baker and Scott. His reaction to the commission was not one of enthusiasm, for he remarked, ‘I really do not feel that I much want to do the work except for a rather natural longing to attempt to remove some of the squalor of Adderley Street.’ This was the last building that Baker designed in South Africa. It shows the approach of the mature architect, with the bold and dignified facade of grey granite and the domed banking hall within the great bronze doors.

1931 Desmond Mpilo Tutu is born. Ordained an Anglican priest in 1961 he was associate director of the World Council of Churches in Britain from 1972 to 1975. He subsequently became Dean of Johannesburg and Bishop of Lesotho. During this period he was an outspoken opponent of apartheid. He was the Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 – 1995, and in 1984 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in advocating peaceful opposition to the Apartheid oppression.

1932 Imperial Airways start a regular service between Cape Town and London.

1932 Delville Wood Memorial is unveiled

By the middle of July 1916, 121 officers and 3,032 men of the South African Brigade of the 9th Division have advanced to the fringes of Delville Wood , a key tactical position. On the 15th, they storm the wood, which they then hold for almost a week in the face of ferocious artillery bombardment and infantry counter-attack. Just five officers and 750 men survive unwounded.

German Kaiser Wilhelm II later says: ‘if all divisions had fought like the 9th, I would not have any troops left.’ Author John Buchan describes the battle as ‘an epic of terror and glory scarcely equalled in the entire campaign’.

The Somme offensive lasts five months. By November, the Allies have advanced just five miles, at a cost of 420,000 British, 190,000 French and 650,000 German lives.

General Sir Henry Timson Luken Statue

Ther statue, of Major General Sir Henry Timson Lukin (K.C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., Commander, Legion of Honour, Order of the Nile), stands in his riding breeches gazing at a likely mount being rounded up by two naked men aloft the adjoining Delville Wood memorial. The inscription on his plinth reads:

“He served his King, his Country, and was beloved by his fellow men.”

Major General Sir Henry Timson Lukin was born in Fulham, London, in 1860. In 1879 he came to South Africa and took part in the Zulu War. In 1880 he joined the Cape Mounted Rifles as a Lieutenant. During the South African War he commanded the Artillerv in the Colonial Division and took part in the Siege of Wepener. He was then promoted to Iieutenant Colonel and was awarded the D.S.O. He became the Colonel commanding the Cape Mounted Rifles and later Commandant-General of the Colonial Forces in the Cape. On founding of the Union Defence Force in 1912 he became Inspector-General. In World War I he fought in S. W.A., Egypt and France and commanded the South African Forces at Delville Wood. He rose to the rank of Major General and died in 1925.

Abutting the Avenue is a 25 Ib. Howitzer erected in memory of the Officers, N.C.O.’s and men who fell in the First World War.

It was further dedicated, on the 26th April 1970, by the South African Heavy Artillery Association and the Western Province Branch of the Gunners Association, to the memory of all Artillerymen who laid down their lives for their country in World War II.

1932 August To the left of the Sir George Grey statue, under a pergola of wisteria is a stone Japanese lantern, erected by the Japanese Government in appreciation for the kindness and hospitality shown to Japanese immigrants.

1935 A proposal for the expansion of Table Bay Harbour, and the establishing of the Foreshore through the reclamation of 480 acres of land from the sea is submitted. It was envisaged that the project would result in some 270 acres becoming available for the extension of the central City area itself.

1936 Construction of a new headoffice for Old Mutual Building starts. Built on the corner of Darling and Parliament Street in Cape Town and completed in 1940. It remains the prime example of African-inspired Art Deco architecture in South Africa. Together with the General Post Office building, opposite, boasting 13 floors, was for many years the tallest building in South Africa.

1939 War is declared against Germany. General Herzog resigns as Prime Ministe and is replaced by General Smuts.

1940 The reclamation of the Foreshore starts with the demolition of the old Pier, at the bottom of Adderley Street. Its implementation brought an impressive change to the appearance of central Cape Town. The approach of the Second World War showed all too clearly that the reclamation of the area had been undertaken just in time, when hostilities broke out. The Duncan Basin was nearing completion and without these new facilities the port never could have coped with the vast volume of naval and merchant shipping traffic that called here between 1939 and 1945.

1940 The General Post Office building, overlooking the western side of the Parade is completed. It was built on the site of the old Opera House.

Opposite the main entrance of the G.P.O. is Trafalgar Place, between Parliament and Adderley Streets and adjoining the old Standard Bank. This Square houses one of Cape Town’s most colourful attractions – the world-famous flower sellers. To ensure fairness of trade, they rotate their positions every two weeks, to give everybody the opportunity to trade on the Adderly Street side.

Also to be found here, facing the Post Office is the memorial to Archdeacon Thomas Fothergill Lightfoot, born on 3 rd March 1831. He was a priest of the Anglican Church. Around 1860 he translated parts of the English prayer book into High Dutch, opened an adult school for mechanics and was legendary for his work among the poor of Cape Town. During the smallpox epedemic he regularly visited Somerset Hospital, to offer spiritual comfort to the sick. A ward in Somerset Hospital is named after him. He became a Canon in 1870 and Archdeacon in 1885. He died on the 12th November 1904. The drinking fountain, in red Verona marble, is a copy of a 14 th Century original in the old market in Verona. It was designed by the architects Herbert Baker and Francis Massey

The Lonely Graves of Zululand

One of the most poignant aspects of the Zulu War is the relatively small number of lonely graves scattered about Zululand which have lain undisturbed these last hundred years, and as one stands at these graves one feels an abiding respect and deep admiration for these officers and men who made the supreme sacrifice and who bought with their blood their tiny 'acre' of Zululand soil.

There is Lt F.J.C. Frith of the 17th Lancers and the two unknown men who lie beside him at Fort Newdigate.

There is Lt G.A. Pardoe of the 13th Regiment who lies at Fort Marshall.

There is Lt J.H. Scott Douglas of the 21st Regiment and Cpl. W. Cotter of the 17th Lancers buried together at Kwamagwaza.

There is Capt the Hon R.G.E. Campbell of the Coldstream Guards and Mr Llewellyn Lloyd, Political Agent lying on the slopes of Hlobane.

There is Private P.B. Brown of the 58th Regiment at Fort Evelyn.

And then there are the graves of Troopers Abel and Rogers keeping watch at the place of the passing of the Napoleonic dynasty where they died with the Prince Imperial.

Lt Frederick John Cokayne Frith was born at Oban, Argyllshire on 22nd September, 1858, the son of an army major and at the age of 17 passed out in the first class at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He was gazetted on 16th February, 1876, to the 17th Lancers, and was appointed adjutant of the regiment on 12 February, 1879. The 17th Lancers landed at Durban on 6 April, 1879, as part of the reinforcements sent out to South Africa after the disaster at Isandlwana, and joined the forces under Lord Chelmsford and advanced into Zululand with General Edward Newdigate.

On 5th June 1879, a portion of the regiment under Col D.C. Drury-Lowe was engaged in their first skirmish with the enemy near the Upoko River when Lt Frith was shot through the heart. His body was brought into the camp on the Nondweni River and buried that same evening. He was followed to the grave by all his brother officers, and by most of the officers in camp, including Lord Chelmsford, General Newdigate, and staff.

Lt Cokayne Frith was a young officer of much promise, active, hard-working, genial and kind hearted. He was a general favourite, not only with his brother officers, but with all who knew him.

It is recorded that two troopers were wounded in the same engagement and nearly all the accounts of his burial make no mention of anyone being buried with him that same evening, although Private Edward D. McToy in his delightful brief history of the 13th Regiment in South Africa in 1877/1879 mentions that two troopers were killed with Lt Frith. This is probably erroneous. There is little doubt, however, that the area of Frith's grave demarcated by stones provides for three graves, and it would be interesting to ascertain the identity of the other two men. So far I have not been able to trace them, but they are probably two men who died of disease subsequently at Fort Newdigate and were buried on either side of Lt Frith.

Grave of Lt. F.J.C. Frith at Fort Newdigate
(H.W. Kinsey)

Lt George Astell Pardoe was born on 5 September, 1855, at Brighton, the son of a former army captain, and was educated at Cowes and Eton. After a year at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst he obtained his commission in the 13th Regiment, Prince Albert's Light Infantry, later Somerset Light Infantry, and in May, 1876,joined the 1st Battalion of the Regiment in South Africa. Lt Pardoe carried the colours of the 13th Regiment at Pretoria at the formal annexation of the Transvaal on 12 April, 1877. Soon afterwards he was invalided home in consequence of a serious illness, but rejoined the regiment before the Sekukuni Campaign of 1878 in which he served. He was with Colonel Evelyn Wood's column throughout the whole of its operations on the Transvaal frontier and during its subsequent advance into Zululand. He was wounded at the battle of Ulundi by a Martini Henry bullet passing through his right thigh and lodging in the left thigh where it fractured the bone. For some days he seemed to be progressing favourably and was on his way to the base hospital at Utrecht when, despite skilful treatment and nursing, his condition worsened and it became necessary to amputate his left leg as the only possible means of saving his life. The shock was too much for his system and he died on 14 July, 1879, at the Umhlatoosi River and was buried the next day at Fort Marshall. His character cannot be better described than by quoting from a letter written by one of his brother officers :- 'A more honourable, high-minded, generous young fellow did not exist he was a favourite with everyone, from the Colonel down to the youngest bugler.' Private McToy writes, 'Living a soldier's life, he has died a soldier's death, and will be honoured, as a soldier should be, in the memory of all who served with him in the campaign.' His death was all the more sorrowful in that he was wounded in the last action in which his regiment took part after serving for so long in South Africa and after having marched so far. As McToy says, 'a distance, in all, of at least 2 000 miles'.

Grave of Lt. G.R. Pardoe at Fort Marshall
(H.W. Kinsey)

Lt James Henry Scott Douglas was born in Edinburgh on 27 May, 1853, the son of a Scots MP, and was educated at Winchester and Cambridge. Before proceeding to Cambridge he received a commission in the Queen's Regiment of Light Infantry Militia, but after graduating he was gazetted to the 19th Regiment on 1 April, 1875. However, as he was anxious to serve with a Scots regiment he transferred to the 21st Regiment, the Royal Scots Fusiliers. The regiment arrived in Durban on 29 March, 1879, and proceeded to the front where Lt Scott Douglas was appointed Chief of the Signalling Staff of the Second Division of the Field Force. On the morning of 30 June, 1879, he was employed with his signalling party at Entonjaneni but before noon a mist came down and prevented the working of the heliograph. Shortly afterwards Lt Scott Douglas was required to carry an important message from Lord Chelmsford to Fort Evelyn about 32 km away and decided to be accompanied only by his orderly, Cpl W. Cotter of the 17th Lancers, instead of a large party in view of the condition of the horses. The officer in command of Fort Evelyn tried to prevail on Scott Douglas not to return that afternoon in view of the fatigued condition of the horses and the unsettled weather, but Scott Douglas, knowing that the army was to march on Ulundi the following day, preferred to return. The start for Entonjaneni was made at about 15h00, and about an hour later a dense fog caused Scott Douglas and Cotter to take the wrong road to the deserted mission station at Kwamagwaza where they were surprised and killed by a party of Zulus at dawn the next morning, 1 July, 1879. Their bodies were found some days later by Brig-Gen Henry Evelyn Wood with every indication that the two had defended themselves most gallantly. Col W.P. Collingwood of the 21st Regiment wrote, 'Of the soldierlike, manly bearing and social virtues of Lt Scott Douglas I, his commanding officer, cannot speak too highly. He was the ideal type of officer and a gentleman in the highest sense in which that term can be applied.'

The Hon Ronald George Elidor Campbell, the second son of the Earl of Cawdor, was born on 30 December, 1848, and educated at Eton. He entered the army in 1867 as an ensign in the Coldstream Guards. In 1871 he became lieutenant and captain and was appointed adjutant in the same year. This latter appointment he held until October, 1878.

Captain Campbell embarked for South Africa in November, 1878, and was appointed staff officer to Col Evelyn Wood, whose column was at that time in the course of formation on the Transvaal frontier, preparatory to the invasion of Zululand. This column crossed the Blood River on 6 January, 1879, and Captain Campbell was present as staff officer throughout the various operations. He took part in the attack on Hlobane Mountain on 28 March, 1879, and was killed in action that day. Col Wood was riding along the southern slope of Hlobane with his personal staff and an escort of mounted men from the 90th Regiment and some mounted Zulus. Mr Llewellyn Lloyd, Wood's Political Agent, and Lt Henry Lysons of the 90th Regiment, were also in the party with Captain Campbell. The party encountered Col F.A. Weatherley and the Border Horse, and Wood directed them to proceed to the sound of firing towards the summit. Wood and his party pressed ahead towards the Ityenka Nek and soon came under fire from the enemy.

The following passage, taken from Colonel Wood's despatch to Lord Chelmsford, describes the manner in which Captain Campbell met his death.

'We soon came under fire from an unseen enemy on our right. Ascending more rapidly than most of the Border Horse, who had got off the track, with my staff and escort I passed to the front, and, with half-a-dozen of the Border Horse, when within a hundred feet of the summit, came under a well-directed fire from our front and both flanks, poured in from behind huge boulders and rocks. Mr Lloyd fell mortally wounded at my side, and as Captain Campbell and one of the escort were carrying him on a ledge rather lower, my horse was killed, falling on me. I directed Colonel Weatherley to dislodge one or two Zulus who were causing us most of the loss but, as his men did not advance rapidly, Captain Campbell and Lieutenant Lysons, and three men of the 9Oth,jumping over a low wall, ran forward, and charged into a cave, when Captain Campbell, leading in the most determined and gallant manner, was shot dead. Mr Lloyd was now dead, and we brought his body, and that of Captain Campbell, about half-way down the hill, where we buried them, still being under fire.' In another of his official despatches Colonel Wood wrote of Captain Campbell: 'He was an excellent staff officer, both in the field and as regards offce work and having shown the most brilliant courage, lost his life in performing a gallant feat.' Again, in a private letter, bearing date January the 29th, Colonel Wood wrote: 'I never saw a man play a more heroic part than he did yesterday.'

Graves of Captain the Hon. R.G.E. Campbell and Mr Llewellyn Lloyd at Hlobane
(H.W. Kinsey)

In a letter, dated 25 July, 1881, addressed to the Military Secretary, Horse Guards, London, Sir Evelyn Wood states that had Captain Campbell survived he wood have recommended him for 'the coveted distinction' (the Victoria Cross). It is interesting to note that his son, John Campbell, also of the Coldstream Guards, gained the Victoria Cross in 1916.

Of Pte P.B. Brown of the 58th Regiment I have been unable to trace any record, but he lies alone at Fort Evelyn and his grave today identifies that site.

Much has been written about the death of the Prince Imperial on 1 June, 1879, together with Troopers Abel and Rogers of Bettington's Horse and the Zulu guide who accompanied the party on that fateful day. These two troopers, whose graves are marked, and the guide, lie undisturbed at the fateful spot near the Ityotyosi River. They were present at the making of history with the passing of the Napoleonic dynasty, and keep watch over that lonely corner of Zululand which is still the object of pilgrimages from all over the world.

So whilst we have already observed the centenary of the Zulu War and have paid particular attention to the disaster at Isandlwana, the glorious defence of Rorke's Drift, and the victory at Ulundi, let us not forget the gallant officers and men who lie in the lonely graves of Zululand and the price they paid for the British victory.

Watch the video: The Exploits and Ailments of Sir Evelyn Wood