December 1, 2014 Day 315 of the Sixth Year - History

December 1, 2014 Day 315 of the Sixth Year - History

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President Barack Obama and Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr. meet with Philadelphia Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey and Laurie Robinson, professor of criminology, law and society at George Mason University, and a former assistant attorney general, who will be co-chairing a Presidential task force on how communities and law enforcement can work together to build trust to strengthen neighborhoods across the country, in the Oval Office, Dec. 1, 2014.

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

12:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with members of his Cabinet to discuss federal programs and funding that provide equipment to state and local law enforcement agencies; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
The Roosevelt Room

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with young local and national civil rights leaders; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Oval Office

2:50PM THE PRESIDENT meets with elected officials, community and faith leaders, along with law enforcement officials, to discuss how communities and law enforcement can work together to build trust to strengthen neighborhoods across the country; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Eisenhower Executive Office Building


Over 103,800 people are living with HIV in the UK. Globally, there are an estimated 38 million people who have the virus. Despite the virus only being identified in 1984, more than 35 million people have died of HIV or AIDS, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in history.

Today, scientific advances have been made in HIV treatment, there are laws to protect people living with HIV and we understand so much more about the condition. Despite this, each year in the UK over 4,450 people are diagnosed with HIV, people do not know the facts about how to protect themselves and others, and stigma and discrimination remain a reality for many people living with the condition.

World AIDS Day is important because it reminds the public and government that HIV has not gone away – there is still a vital need to raise money, increase awareness, fight prejudice and improve education.


DUPONT ANALYSIS A firm has been experiencing low profitability in recent years Perform an analysis of the firm’s financial position using the DuPont equation. The firm has no lease payments but has a $2 million sinking fund payment on its debt The most recent industry average ratios and the firm’s financial statements are as follows: Industry Average Ratios Current ratio 3x Fixed assets turnover 6x Debt to capital ratio 20% Total assets turnover 3x Times interest earned 7x Profit margin 3% EBITDA coverage 9x Return on total assets 9% Inventory turnover 10x Return on common equity 12.86% Days sales outstanding a 24 days Return on invested capital 11.50% a Calculation is based on a 365 day year. Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2014 (Millions of Dollars) Cash and equivalents $ 78 Accounts payable $ 45 Accounts receivable 66 Other current liabilities 11 Inventories 159 Notes payable 29 Total current assets $303 Total current liabilities $ 85 Long term debt 50 Tout liabilities $135 Gross fixed assets 225 Common stock 114 Less depreciation 78 Retained earnings 201 Net fixed assets $147 Total stockholders’ equity $315 Total assets $450 Total liabilities and equity $450 Income Statement for Year Ended December 31, 2014 (Millions of Dollars) Net sales $795.0 Cost of goods sold 660.0 Gross profit $135.0 Selling expenses 735 EBITDA $ 61.5 Depreciation expense 12.0 Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) $ 49.5 Interest expense 45 Earnings before taxes (EBT) $ 45.0 Taxes (40%) 18.0 Net income $ 27.0 a. Calculate the ratios you think would be useful in this analysis. b. Construct a DuPont equation and compare the company's ratios to the industry average ratios. c. Do the balance sheet accounts or the income statement figures seem to be primarily responsible for the low profits? d. Which specific accounts seem to be most out of line relative to other firms in the industry? e. If the firm had a pronounced seasonal sales pattern or if it grew rapidly during the year, how might that affect the validity of your ratio analysis? How might you correct for such potential problems?

DUPONT ANALYSIS A firm has been experiencing low profitability in recent years Perform an analysis of the firm’s financial position using the DuPont equation. The firm has no lease payments but has a ɂ million sinking fund payment on its debt The most recent industry average ratios and the firm’s financial statements are as follows:

Industry Average Ratios

Current ratio 3x Fixed assets turnover 6x
Debt to capital ratio 20% Total assets turnover 3x
Times interest earned 7x Profit margin 3%
EBITDA coverage 9x Return on total assets 9%
Inventory turnover 10x Return on common equity 12.86%
Days sales outstanding a 24 days Return on invested capital 11.50%
a Calculation is based on a 365 day year.

Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2014 (Millions of Dollars)

Cash and equivalents $ 78 Accounts payable $ 45
Accounts receivable 66 Other current liabilities 11
Inventories 159 Notes payable 29
Total current assets 𤌃 Total current liabilities $ 85
Long term debt 50
Tout liabilities 𤄵
Gross fixed assets 225 Common stock 114
Less depreciation 78 Retained earnings 201
Net fixed assets 𤅇 Total stockholders’ equity 𤌕
Total assets 𤑐 Total liabilities and equity 𤑐

Income Statement for Year Ended December 31, 2014 (Millions of Dollars)


Historical celebration

Christmas carols have existed since medieval times. This painting is from the mid to late 19th century ©

Christmas has always been a strange combination of Christian, Pagan and folk traditions. As far back as 389 AD, St Gregory Nazianzen (one of the Four Fathers of the Greek Church) warned against 'feasting in excess, dancing and crowning the doors'. The Church was already finding it hard to bury the Pagan remnants of the midwinter festival.

Medieval

During the medieval period (c.400AD - c.1400AD) Christmas was a time for feasting and merrymaking. It was a predominantly secular festival but contained some religious elements.

Medieval Christmas lasted 12 days from Christmas Eve on 24th December, until the Epiphany (Twelfth Night) on 6th January. Epiphany comes from a Greek word that means 'to show', meaning the time when Jesus was revealed to the world. Even up until the 1800s the Epiphany was at least as big a celebration as Christmas day.

Many Pagan traditions had been brought to Britain by the invading Roman soldiers. These included covering houses in greenery and bawdy partying that had its roots in the unruly festival of Saturnalia.

The Church attempted to curb Pagan practices and popular customs were given Christian meaning. Carols that had started as Pagan songs for celebrations such as midsummer and harvest were taken up by the Church. By the late medieval period the singing of Christmas carols had become a tradition.

The Church also injected Christian meaning into the use of holly, making it a symbol for Jesus' crown of thorns. According to one legend, the holly's branches were woven into a painful crown and placed on Christ's head by Roman soldiers who mocked him, chanting: "Hail King of the Jews." Holly berries used to be white but Christ's blood left them with a permanent crimson stain.

Another legend is about a little orphan boy who was living with shepherds when the angels came to announce Jesus' birth. The child wove a crown of holly for the newborn baby's head. But when he presented it, he became ashamed of his gift and started to cry. Miraculously the baby Jesus reached out and touched the crown. It began to sparkle and the orphan's tears turned into beautiful scarlet berries.

Ban on Christmas

From the middle of the 17th century until the early 18th century the Christian Puritans suppressed Christmas celebrations in Europe and America.

The Puritan movement began during the reign of Queen Elizabeth in England (1558-1603). They believed in strict moral codes, plenty of prayer and close following of New Testament scripture.

As the date of Christ's birth is not in the Gospels the Puritans thought that Christmas was too strongly linked to the Pagan Roman festival and were opposed to all celebration of it, particularly the lively, boozy celebrations inherited from Saturnalia. In 1644 all Christmas activities were banned in England. This included decorating houses with evergreens and eating mince pies.

Modern-day crib outside a church ©

The crib and the nativity play

The telling of the Christmas story has been an important part of the Christianisation of Christmas. One way that the Christmas story has been maintained is through the crib, a model of the manger that Jesus was born in.

The tradition of crib making dates back to at least 400 AD when Pope Sixtus III had one built in Rome. In many parts of Europe in the 18th century crib making was an important craft form. This was not the case in England until much later, suggesting that British Christmases were less Christian than those in other parts of Europe.

The tradition of Nativity plays began in churches where they were used to illustrate the Christmas story as told in the Bible.

Victorian Christmas

After a lull in Christmas celebrations the festival returned with a bang in the Victorian Era (1837-1901). The Victorian Christmas was based on nostalgia for Christmases past. Dickens' A Christmas Carol (1843) inspired ideals of what Christmas should be, capturing the imagination of the British and American middle classes. This group had money to spend and made Christmas a special time for the family.

Detail from a Victorian Christmas card ©

The Victorians gave us the kind of Christmas we know today, reviving the tradition of carol singing, borrowing the practice of card giving from St. Valentine's day and popularising the Christmas tree.

Although the Victorians attempted to revive the Christmas of medieval Britain, many of the new traditions were Anglo-American inventions. From the 1950s, carol singing was revived by ministers, particularly in America, who incorporated them into Christmas celebrations in the Church. Christmas cards were first sent by the British but the Americans, many of whom were on the move and away from their families, picked up the practice because of a cheap postal service and because it was a good way of keeping in contact with people at home.

Christmas trees were a German tradition, brought to Britain and popularised by the royal family. Prince Albert first introduced the Christmas tree into the royal household in Britain in 1834. He was given a tree as a gift by the Queen of Norway which was displayed in Trafalgar Square.


RESULTS

Table 1 shows baseline characteristics of the participants. In both sexes the duration of smoking increases by the number of cigarettes smoked daily smokers of 1–4 cigarettes per day (below named “light smokers”), however, have a distinctly shorter history of smoking than participants with heavier cigarette consumption. In both sexes there is an increase in serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides by cigarette consumption, while there is a decrease in physical activity during leisure. For the other variables there are only small and inconsistent differences.

Baseline characteristics of 23521 male and 19201 female participants.* Mean values, by cigarette consumption recorded at screening†

Table 2 gives the number of participants and number of person years by cigarette consumption, and deaths from any cause, ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, and lung cancer. In both sexes and all mortality groups, light smokers have higher death rates than never smokers, the death rates increasing with increasing cigarette consumption. Women have lower death rates than men in all mortality and consumption groups, the difference being most pronounced for ischaemic heart disease. Heavy smoking women, however, have higher death rates than never smoking men.

Number of participants and person years deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, and lung cancer, number and per 100000 person years, by number of cigarettes recorded at screening. 23521 male and 19201 female participants aged 35–49*

Table 3 displays adjusted relative risks of death with never smokers as reference, and with the two sets of adjustments described in the section on statistical methods. Within the various consumption groups there are only minor and inconsistent differences between the two sets of risk figures.

Adjusted relative risk (RR, 95% confidence intervals) of death from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, and lung cancer, by number of cigarettes daily recorded at screening, with never smokers as reference. 23521 male and 19201 female participants aged 35–49*

Light smokers have a significantly higher relative risk of dying from any cause, for both sexes about 1.5 times higher than in never smokers. The same applies for relative risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease—for both sexes, close to three times higher. The highest relative excess rate in light smokers is seen for lung cancer in women with a relative risk of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 1.81 to 13.98). The corresponding male relative risk is 2.79, but with a confidence interval encompassing 1.0.

In both sexes and in all consumption groups, relative risk for ischaemic heart disease is far higher than for all cancer and for deaths from any cause, with the steepest increase from 0 to 1–4 cigarettes per day.

On the whole, women have higher relative risks than men of dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer, but one should keep in mind that the absolute risk is higher in men than in women in all consumption categories.

For all mortality groups, there is a significant increasing trend in relative risk by cigarette consumption, with the exception of ischaemic heart disease in women.

As light smokers clearly had a shorter history of smoking than the other consumption groups (table 1), we ran a separate analysis for smokers in order to elucidate the impact of this factor upon future mortality.

Table 4 presents the relative risks related to five years of smoking. This table, and table 1, show that if duration of smoking in the light smokers had been of the same length as for persons in other consumption groups, their relative risk would have been even higher than that reported in table 3, ranging from about 7% for ischaemic heart disease to about 47% for lung cancer in women.

Relative risk (95% confidence interval) of death from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, and lung cancer, per five years of smoking estimated from Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age and number of cigarettes*

Table 5 shows participants who at the first screening reported to be never-smokers, or to smoke 1–4 cigarettes daily, and who turned up for examination 10 years later.

Smoking habits 10 years after baseline screening in persons who attended both examinations. 3774 men and 7591 women reporting at baseline never to have smoked, and 224 men and 552 women reporting at baseline a consumption of 1–4 cigarettes per day. Number of persons, age 35–49 at baseline*

Of the never-smokers at baseline, 7% of the men and 5% of the women had changed category 10 years later 2% of both sexes had started to smoke. Of the light smokers at baseline, 24% of the men and 20% of the women stated unchanged daily cigarette consumption 10 years later. Higher cigarette consumption was registered for 26% of the male and 41% of the female light smokers, while 48% of the men and 39% of the women had become ex-smokers or stated that they had never smoked cigarettes daily. A few men had switched to pipe/cigars. A dominant fraction of the light smokers with increased consumption had moved only to the category 5–9 cigarettes per day.


Of course then it was still called Decoration Day, and at the time, Garfield was a Civil War General and Republican Congressman, not yet a President. On May 30, 1868, he addressed the several thousand people gathered at Arlington National Cemetery. &ldquoIf silence is ever golden,&rdquo Garfield said, &ldquoit must be beside the graves of 15,000 men, whose lives were more significant than speech, and whose death was a poem the music of which can never be sung.&rdquo

In addition to the national holiday, nine states officially set aside a day to honor those who died fighting for the Confederacy in the Civil War: Texas, South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Georgia. The days vary, but only Virginia observes Confederate Memorial Day on the last Monday of May, in accordance with the federal observance of Memorial Day.


Observing Aids

Northern Hemisphere’s Sky – This map portrays the sky as seen near 40° north latitude at 8 P.M. local time in early December and 7 P.M. in late December.

Southern Hemisphere’s Sky – This map is plotted for 35° south latitude. It shows the sky at 10 P.M. local time in early December and 9 P.M. in late December.

Visibility of the Planets – The table provides general information about the visibility of the planets during the current month.

Phases of the Moon – This Moon Phase Calendar shows the Moon’s phase for every day in December.

Jupiter’s Moons – The diagram shows the positions of Galilean satellites on each day in December at midnight.


The seven lowest points totals in Premier League history

The so-called Best League In The World™ has had some pretty terrible teams in it over the years, but usually there’s just one big stinker in the bunch per season.

Sheffield United were this season’s worst side, failing to build on an impressive return to the Premier League last season in one of the division’s worst ever cases of ‘Second Season Syndrome’.

The Blades’ poor performances have contributed to their relegation in pretty embarrassing fashion, and their struggles this season have seen the club enter this list of the Premier League’s worst sides.

The Premier League clubs with the lowest points totals ever:

7. Sheffield United (2020/21)

Points: 23 | Goal Difference: -43

Sheffield United’s season of struggle has seen the Blades condemned to the Championship, just a year after punching above their weight to secure a ninth-placed finish upon their Premier League return.

Last season’s overachievement was followed by a miserable campaign at Bramall Lane, one that saw Sheffield United compile the worst-ever start to a Premier League season, failing to win in their opening 17 fixtures of the 2020/21 campaign.

The methods that worked so well last season failed to achieve similar results this time around, with only six sides having ever finished a Premier League season with less than the Blades’ paltry haul of 23 points.

Chris Wilder departed in March, but there was no stopping the rot as defeat to Wolves relegated the Blades with six games of the season remaining, an unwanted joint-record they now share with Ipswich Town (1994/95), Derby County (2007/08) and Huddersfield Town (2018/19) for the Premier League’s earliest relegation.

6. Norwich City (2019/20)

Points: 21 | Goal Difference: -49

It started out so well for Norwich City last season two wins from their opening five games saw them get off to a better start than their fellow promotion clubs, who both stayed up, powered by a goal glut from Teemu Pukki which saw them score nine goals – so where did it go wrong?

Despite an impressive 3-2 win over Manchester City in September, the Canaries were just never able to stem the flow of goals going the other way. They invested nothing in their defence last summer, while their midfield were useless at stopping attacks at the source.

On top of that, the tactical approach of Daniel Farke only made things worse. Norwich chose to play attacking football despite their defensive weaknesses, which is fine if you score the requisite amount of goals to counteract the ones you concede. But they didn’t get even close, scoring 26 goals in 38 games.

They played some attractive football at times, but it was of no use to their chances of survival. In fact, it actively harmed them. They do, though, have some talented young players, such as Emi Buendia, Todd Cantwell and Max Aarons, who have since helped the Canaries bounce back at the first attempt.

Norwich were probably the best 20th-placed of the Premier League era, which might be the worst consolation prize ever.

5. Sunderland (2002-03)

Points: 19 | Goal Difference: -44

The best thing about this season is that it’s not even the worst one Sunderland has suffered. Peter Reid was sacked by October, and the recruitment committee, headed solely by Howard Wilkinson, to find a new manager decided on… Howard Wilkinson.

The ex-Leeds boss was gone by March, after winning just two league games, to be replaced by Mick McCarthy, who oversaw the club’s relegation back to the second tier. A brilliant 2-1 win over Liverpool in December was the highlight of the season, but they failed to win another game for the rest of the campaign, setting a Premier League record with 15 consecutive defeats.

4. Aston Villa (2015-16)

Points: 17 | Goal Difference: -49

The Tim Sherwood experience lasted until late October, at which point he had won precisely one league game. Remi Garde took over in November and, to his eternal credit, doubled that record. To be fair to the Frenchman, there was no saving a club that had been rotting from the inside for years thanks to dreadful financial mismanagement over an extended period.

Highlight of the season has to be Joleon Lescott tweeting a picture of a fancy car after Villa were thrashed 6-0 by Liverpool in February. He tried to explain it away by saying he “accidentally” sent it while driving. Sure.

3. Huddersfield Town (2018/19)

Points: 16 | Goal Difference: -54

Following two magical seasons in which the Terriers gained a miraculous promotion, followed by an even more miraculous survival in the top flight, it finally all came apart last season.

Huddersfield didn’t taste victory until November, when they defeated fellow relegation battlers Fulham 1-0 in a god awful contest, and by January David Wagner had left the club he had steered to unimaginable heights.

They managed to avoid the ignominy of being the first top flight team to not score ten or more away goals in a campaign after they secured a shock 1-1 draw with Manchester United at Old Trafford.

High point of the season had to be when a Sky Sports reporter made his way through the crowd to greet the club’s new coach, Jan Siewert. Only it wasn’t him at all. It was “Martin from Wakefield”. Awkward.

2. Sunderland (2005/06)

Points: 15 | Goal Difference: -43

If you thought the 2003 version of Sunderland was bad, just wait until you see the 2005-06 model!

The Black Cats extended their record-breaking losing streak to 20 games at the start of the season, setting the tone for the rest of the campaign. By Christmas they had attained one win and a mere seven points. At the time they set a new low for points gained and would only secure their third win of the season against Fulham long after they were relegated from the division.

On the bright side, their relegation led to Roy Keane taking over the following season, leading them back to the Premier League by winning the EFL Championship. His appointment gave much-needed stability to the club, until Ellis Short took over the organisation and ruined it all.

1. Derby County (2007-08)

Points: 11 | Goal Difference: -69

If you google “worst premier league teams ever’, the Wikipedia page for Derby County’s 2008-09 season comes up on the front page of results. That’s how definitive their badness was that season.

The Rams broke a host of records that season, each one more unwanted than the last: the longest run of games (32) without a win lowest points total (11) since the introduction of 3 points for a win the record for the fewest wins (1) in a Premier League season they are also the only team to have been relegated from the EPL in March, and just the second in the post-war era.

That solitary win came in September against Newcastle United, with whom they also drew later in the season, meaning 36% of their points from that campaign were won against the Magpies.


Gas or Electric Cars: Which Costs Less To “Fuel”?

This question is gaining popularity along with the popularity and growth of electric vehicles. Many EV drivers are more concerned with the “cost” to the environment and not the savings over gas-powered vehicles, but there are also many EV drivers out there who are interested in this statistic. So how can you calculate the difference? It’s not as difficult as you might think, but there is some research involved.

To calculate the cost of gas fueling a vehicle, the formula is pretty simple. Simply divide the cost of one gallon of gasoline in your area by the miles per gallon (MPG) of the vehicle in question. For instance, if gasoline costs $4/gallon in your area and the vehicle gets 30 MPG, it costs 13.33 cents per mile to fuel your vehicle.

To calculate the cost of charging your electric vehicle is a bit more challenging. First, visit the automaker’s website to see the estimated charging times and the charging system you intend to use for the vehicle in question. Next, find your electric company’s rates per kilowatt-hour. Multiply the rate per kilowatt-hour by the estimated time it will take to charge your vehicle based on your chosen charging method. Then divide that number by the number of miles you received per full battery charge, and you will have your answer.

In most cases, it will be cheaper to charge your vehicle that it would be to fill it with gas, but you must do your own research to determine if this is true for you. Find more information about gas and electric vehicle MPGs at www.CompetingCarPrices.com.

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December 1, 2014 Day 315 of the Sixth Year - History

One World, One Games

One A Journey to One World, One Games - an initiative for disability inclusion and access, in partnership with Lakeshore Foundation of Birmingham, that aims to present an event that embraces inclusivity and accessibility for athletes and fans alike, and establish a legacy of disability inclusion in multi-sports events. Galloway will serve as the initiative’s official spokesperson.

Successful Première for IWGA Online Voting Platform

The International World Games Association has received a lot of positive feedback after its remote Annual General Meeting (AGM) in May 2021. The IWGA received special recognition for its own online voting platform.

Sambo returns to The World Games family

The World Games family welcomed two new members at its recent Annual General Meeting: Sambo and Wushu. Altogether there are now 39 international sports federations that are members of the International World Games Association.

Full IOC recognition proposed to 4 IWGA members

Four member federations of the International World Games Association (IWGA) were among the six federations that the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee proposed for approval by the IOC Session for full IOC recognition. The World Games family congratulates the federations in question!

Europe at The World Games

The eyes of sports fans across Europe have turned this week towards the UEFA European Championships, where the continent’s best football teams are battling it out to win the prestigious trophy. The tournament is designed to mark Europe’s sporting heritage, with games taking place in eleven different countries. Let’s therefore mark the occasion by picking out some of the continent’s best athletes, many of whom will be competing in Birmingham next year when The World Games makes its long awaited return to the USA.

We warmly welcome Wushu to The World Games family!

What does the new member Wushu bring to the family? Spectacular and mind-blowing performances at least – and a lot of history.


What statistics say about December 15 Zodiac?

December 15 is counted in the Gregorian Calendar as the 349th day of the year or the 350th day in leap years, while until the end of the year there are 16 days left. The fifteenth day of winter, this is also the Zamenhof Day for the International Esperanto Community.

Sagittarius as popularity, is placed the tenth on the list of most common birth signs. As a sign of positive meaning, with intuitive energy, this is also of masculine symbolism and an odd numbered sign. This is characteristic for extrovert people who are courteous and indiscreet. One of the archetypes used to characterize this sign is the Student. Sagittarians are the natives having the least babies.

Famous people born on December 15 under the Sagittarius zodiac sign: Nero, Gustave Eiffel, Don Johnson, Adam Brody and Geoff Stults.


Watch the video: 1st day of celebration 9-9