Photos of America in Mourning After MLK's Shocking Assassination

Photos of America in Mourning After MLK's Shocking Assassination



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Emmett Till. Medgar Evers. Harry and Harriette Moore. But when Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was gunned down on the balcony of a Memphis hotel on April 4 of that year, it seemed like the death knell for one of the United States’ most effective—and divisive—social movements.

As word of the assassination spread, public and private mourning for King, including multiple funerals and a nationwide period of grief began. So did riots, which broke out in nearly 100 American cities, sparked by King’s death but fueled by longstanding social inequity and discrimination.

President Lyndon B. Johnson announced a day of mourning in King’s honor. In the immediate aftermath of King’s murder, Robert F. Kennedy, then the presumed Democratic nominee for president, quickly addressed King’s death, urging calm and asking people to choose love over lawlessness and work toward justice.












Three days after his death, Nina Simone performed a brand-new song written by her bass player, Gene Taylor, in response to the assassination. “Why? (The King of Love Is Dead)" was a 15-minute-long cry of pain that asked what would happen now that King was gone. “Why was he killed?” she said later. “It was bigotry that sealed his fate.”

King’s death was marked by a memorial service at the funeral home where King was laid out and two funerals in Atlanta, Georgia. The first was held for a group of family and friends in King’s spiritual home: Ebenezer Baptist Church, where King and his father had both served as pastor. During the ceremony, Coretta Scott King, his wife, appeared “a dry-eyed frieze of heartbreak” to one reporter. She requested that the church play a recording of “The Drum Major Instinct,” a sermon her husband had delivered earlier that year. In it, he said he didn’t want a long funeral or eulogy, and that he hoped people would mention that he had given his life to serving others.

After the private funeral, the mourners walked three miles to Morehouse College with a simple farm cart that contained King’s casket. A hundred thousand mourners lined the streets of Atlanta. Then, at the college, King was eulogized by his friend Benjamin Mays, who had promised him he’d do so if he died before King. (King promised the same to Mays.)

"Martin Luther King, Jr. challenged the interracial wrongs of his country without a gun,” said Mays. “And he had the faith to believe that he would win the battle for social justice.” King hadn’t used a gun. But the one wielded by assassin James Earl Ray had silenced the voice of one of the nation’s greatest figures. He was just 39 years old.

READ MORE: Why People Rioted After Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Assassination


Photos of America in Mourning After MLK's Shocking Assassination - HISTORY

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James Earl Ray, an escaped American convict, is arrested in London, England, and charged with the assassination of African American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr .

On April 4, 1968, in Memphis, King was fatally wounded by a snipers bullet while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Motel Lorraine. That evening, a Remington .30-06 hunting rifle was found on the sidewalk beside a rooming house one block from the Lorraine Motel. During the next several weeks, the rifle, eyewitness reports, and fingerprints on the weapon all implicated a single suspect: escaped convict James Earl Ray. A two-bit criminal, Ray escaped a Missouri prison in April 1967 while serving a sentence for a holdup. In May 1968, a massive manhunt for Ray began. The FBI eventually determined that he had obtained a Canadian passport under a false identity, which at the time was relatively easy.

On June 8, Scotland Yard investigators arrested Ray at a London airport. Ray was trying to fly to Belgium, with the eventual goal, he later admitted, of reaching Rhodesia. Rhodesia (now called Zimbabwe) was at the time ruled by an oppressive and internationally condemned white minority government. Extradited to the United States, Ray stood before a Memphis judge in March 1969 and pleaded guilty to Kings murder in order to avoid the electric chair. He was sentenced to 99 years in prison.

Three days later, he attempted to withdraw his guilty plea, claiming he was innocent of Kings assassination and had been set up as a patsy in a larger conspiracy. He claimed that in 1967, a mysterious man named Raoul had approached him and recruited him into a gunrunning enterprise. On April 4, 1968, however, he realized that he was to be the fall guy for the King assassination and fled for Canada. Rays motion was denied, as were his dozens of other requests for a trial during the next 29 years.


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Martin Luther King Jr.'s Assassination, In 23 Haunting Photos

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How to Make Sense of the Shocking New MLK Documents

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From the March on Washington in 1963 up until his assassination in 1968, the FBI engaged in an intense campaign to discredit Martin Luther King

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the 1977 Justice Department Task Force Report, entitled "Martin Luther King, Jr., Security and Assassination Investigations Report." The file review was followed by a series of lengthy, in-person interviews with former officials of both the Justice Department and the FBI who played significant roles, either as supervisors or field agents, in


Contents

In the United States, Kennedy's assassination dissolved differences among many people as they were brought together in one common theme: shock and sorrow after the assassination. [12] It was seen in statements by the former presidents and members of Congress, etc. [12] Barry Goldwater, the eventual Republican nominee in the 1964 presidential election, considered abandoning his planned campaign after the assassination because of his admiration for Kennedy. [13] The news was so shocking and hit with such impact [12] according to the Nielsen Audimeter Service, within 40 minutes of the first reporting of the assassination, the television audience doubled, by early evening, 70% were at their television sets. [14]

CBS Washington correspondent Roger Mudd summed it up: "It was a death that touched everyone instantly and directly rare was the person who did not cry that long weekend. In our home, as my wife (E.J.) watched the television, her tears caused our five-year-old son, Daniel, to go quietly and switch off of what he thought was the cause of his mother's weeping." [15]

Financial Edit

The Dow Jones Industrial Average had been up 3.31 points (0.5%) for the day, [16] at the moment shots were fired at Kennedy. Forty minutes later, as news of Kennedy's death was breaking, it had already plunged 21.16 points (-2.8%), on very heavy trading volume. [16] With the stock exchange already running 20 minutes behind floor transactions, the Board of Governors of the New York Stock Exchange announced that they had closed orders for the day. [16] AMEX and commodities exchanges quickly followed. [17] [18] [16] The new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, telephoned NYSE President G. Keith Funston and commended him for closing the exchange upon hearing the news of the assassination. [19] [20] [21] Funston told LBJ in the phone conversation: "Thanks, Mr. President. Nobody has complimented the stock exchange for anything in a long time." [20]

The first trading day after the assassination, November 26, market averages rebounded sharply, recording the largest gains for any single day in history, and the fourth highest single day trading volume in NYSE history to that point. [22] [23]

Foreign Edit

After Kennedy's assassination, many world leaders expressed shock and sorrow, some going on television and radio to address their nations. [24] [25] In countries around the world, state premiers and governors and mayors also issued messages expressing shock over the assassination. Many of them wondered if Johnson would carry on many of Kennedy's policies. [26] LBJ and the world would sympathize from the "concern etched on Mr. Johnson's face." [27]

In many countries, radio and television networks, after breaking the news, either went off the air except for funeral music or broke schedules to carry uninterrupted news of the assassination, and if Kennedy had made a visit to that country, recalled that visit in detail. [28] [29] For example, in London, there were reports that the BBC Television Service and the Independent Television Authority in London suspended their regular programs upon breaking the news. [30] In several nations, monarchs ordered the royal family into days of mourning. [28] Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom was unable to personally travel to Kennedy's funeral because of her pregnancy with Prince Edward but later described the "the unprecedented intensity of that wave of grief, mixed with something akin to despair, which swept over our people at the news of President Kennedy’s assassination," while Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home said “Tonight I fear there is no comfort that I can bring to the American people … nor indeed to men anywhere who care for tolerance and liberty and justice and peace." [31]

Fidel Castro announced Cuba mourned Kennedy. [32] An FBI memorandum written by J. Edgar Hoover in 1966 and declassified in 2017 suggests that the government of the Soviet Union was shocked by the assassination and blamed it on a right-wing conspiracy to overthrow the government and invade Cuba. [33] [34] First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev and President Leonid Brezhnev sent letters of condolence to Johnson stating, "The villainous assassination of Head of the American State John F. Kennedy is a grievous, indeed a very grievous loss for your country. I want to say frankly that the gravity of this loss is felt by the whole world, including ourselves, the Soviet people" and called the assassination "a heavy blow to all people who hold dear the cause of peace and Soviet-American cooperation." [35] [36]

At U.S. embassies and consulates around the world, switchboards lit up and were flooded with phone calls. [37] At many of them, shocked personnel let telephones go unanswered. They later opened up condolence books for people to sign. [37] In Europe, the assassination tempered Cold War sentiment, as people on both sides expressed shock and sorrow. [38]

News of Kennedy's assassination reached Asia during the early morning hours of November 23, 1963, because of the time difference. [39] [40] In Japan, the news became the first television broadcast from the United States to Japan via the Relay 1 satellite, instead of a prerecorded message from Kennedy to the Japanese people. [41] [42] (Back in the U.S. where it was still November 22, the cancelled broadcast of Kennedy's message was shown on NBC-TV's Huntley-Brinkley Report). [43]

Hostile Edit

Hostile reactions to the late President Kennedy were registered from far right elements. [44]

In the South, where Kennedy wasn't popular because of his position on civil rights, some isolated incidents occurred, where some expressed joy to the death of Kennedy: schools in Mississippi, [45] [46] Louisiana, [47] Alabama [48] and suburbs of Dallas itself. [49]

President of the Memphis Citizens Council Richard Ely told the Nashville White Citizens Council that "I firmly believe Mr. Kennedy died a tyrant's death. He did not set back communism. He encouraged integration, which has the support of communism. He was a tyrant", causing half of the room, some were Peabody College professors, to leave after they unsuccessfully demanded Ely to provide evidence for his claims. [50] [51] In Biloxi, Mississippi, student Thomas Hansen was thrown across the front glass door after protesting against the banners of celebration of the local section of the John Birch Society before being hit with ultimately abandoned charges of vandalism. [52]

As written by William Manchester in Death of a President:

An Oklahoma City physician beamed at a grief-stricken visitor and said, "Good, I hope they got Jackie." In a small Connecticut city a doctor called ecstatically across Main Street — to an internist who worshiped Kennedy — "The joy ride's over. This is one deal Papa Joe can't fix." A woman visiting Amarillo, the second most radical city in Texas, was lunching in the restaurant adjacent to her motel when a score of rejoicing students burst in from a high school directly across the street. "Hey, great, JFK's croaked!" one shouted with flagrant delight, and the woman, leaving as rapidly as she could, noticed that several diners were smiling back at the boy. In Dallas itself a man whooped and tossed his expensive Stetson in the air, and it was in a wealthy Dallas suburb that the pupils of a fourth-grade class, told that the President of the United States had been murdered in their city, burst into spontaneous applause. [53]

On December 1, after Malcolm X made a speech, reporters asked him for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy. The spokesman for the Nation of Islam said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost" and added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad they've always made me glad." [54] The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'." [54] The newspaper noted that his comments were greeted by "loud applause and laughter" from the all-black audience, although it quoted an unnamed audience member who told a reporter he applauded Malcolm X's remarks "more for the fact that he had the nerve to say it than that I really approved of it". [54]

Hastily organized memorial services for Kennedy were held throughout the world, allowing many to express their grief. [55] Governments ordered flags to half-staff and days of mourning. A day of national mourning and sorrow was declared in the U.S. for Monday, November 25, the day of the state funeral. [38] [56] [57] Several other countries such as Ireland did the same. [58] Throughout the United States, many states declared the day of the funeral a legal holiday. [59]

Not all recreational and sporting events scheduled for November 22 and during the weekend after were canceled. Those that went on shared the sentiment NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle expressed in deciding to play NFL games that weekend: "It has been traditional. to perform in times of great personal tragedy." [60] After their win over the Philadelphia Eagles in Philadelphia, players on the Washington Redskins asked Coach Bill McPeak to send the game ball to the White House, thanking Rozelle for allowing the games to be played that weekend, [61] saying that they were "playing. for President Kennedy and in his memory." [62]

On the day of Kennedy's funeral, November 25, 1963, people around the world attended memorial services. [63] This was a day of national mourning in the United States and in many countries around the world. [59] Events were called off because of the mourning. Town streets were deserted while services were held. Everyone who could followed the proceedings on television. [ citation needed ] Others heeded the call for the day of national mourning by going to their place of worship for a memorial service. [64] Around the world, footage of the funeral procession was sent abroad via satellite. [65] [63] Many schools, offices, stores, and factories in the U.S. were closed. [66] Those that were open scheduled a minute of silence. [59] Others permitted employees time off to attend memorial services. During memorial services, church bells tolled. In some cities police officers attached black mourning bands to their badges. [59]

In many states, governors declared the day of national mourning a legal holiday, allowing banks to close. [59] There was silence across the United States at 12:00 EST (17:00 UTC) for five minutes to mark the start of the funeral. [59] [67]

Early example of breaking news Edit

The somber mood across the U.S. during the weekend following Kennedy's death was evident on the broadcast airwaves. The assassination of President Kennedy was the longest uninterrupted news event in the history of American television until the September 11 attacks. [68] By 3 p.m. (EST) on November 22, nearly every television station canceled their commercial schedules to stay with around-the-clock news coverage provided by the three U.S. television networks in 1963: ABC, CBS, and NBC. From 3 p.m. that day until November 26, all network entertainment and commercial programming ceased on U.S. television, and as such, this coverage was one of the earliest examples of what modern television viewers commonly known as a breaking news event. [69] Overnights included taped footage of earlier news mixed with a few breaking news items. On Sunday night, NBC broadcast continuous live coverage of mourners passing the flag-draped bier in the Capitol rotunda as an estimated 250,000 people filed by. [70] [71] [72] On November 24, a concert performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 2, with Leonard Bernstein conducting, was telecast by CBS. [73] Near the end of NBC's coverage of the assassination and funeral, which ended past 1:00 a.m. ET, November 26, the network broadcast a live special post-midnight concert by the National Symphony Orchestra, conducted by the director, Dr. Howard Mitchell, at Constitution Hall. [74] [75] Many radio stations – even many Top 40 rock and roll outlets – also went commercial-free, with many non-network stations playing nothing but classical and/or easy listening instrumental selections interspersed with news bulletins. [ citation needed ] (It has been reported, though, that some stations, such as WAPE in Jacksonville, Florida, and other stations in parts of the country where Kennedy was unpopular carried on with their normal programming as usual.) Most stations did return to normal programming on the day after the funeral.

Tributes to Kennedy abounded in the months following his assassination, particularly in the world of recordings. Many individual radio stations released album compilations of their news coverage of the president's murder ABC News released a two-LP set of its radio news coverage. [76] Major record labels also released tribute albums at one point there were at least six Kennedy tribute albums available for purchase in record stores, with the most popular being Dickie Goodman's John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Presidential Years 1960–1963 (20th Century 3127), which climbed to number eight on the Billboard album chart and stood as the biggest-selling tribute album of all time until the double-CD tribute to Diana, Princess of Wales thirty-four years later. [ citation needed ]

Two days after the assassination (and one day before the funeral), a special live television program titled A Tribute to John F. Kennedy from the Arts was broadcast by ABC on network television. [77] The program featured dramatic readings from such actors as Christopher Plummer, Sidney Blackmer, Florence Eldridge, Albert Finney, and Charlton Heston, as well as musical selections performed by such artists as Marian Anderson. Actor Fredric March (Eldridge's real-life husband) hosted the program. Plummer and Finney performed Hamlet's dying speech (I am dead, Horatio) with Finney taking the role of Horatio. [78] The program has never been repeated, nor has it ever been released on video in any form.

Perhaps the most successful Kennedy tribute song released in the months after his assassination (although later hit songs such as "Abraham, Martin and John" and "We Didn't Start the Fire" also referenced the tragedy) was the controversial "In the Summer of His Years", introduced by British singer Millicent Martin on a special edition of the BBC-TV comedy series That Was the Week That Was, conceived as a somber and respectful tribute to Kennedy. [79] [80] Martin recorded the song soon afterward, and though it was not deemed suitable for single release in the U.K., it was released in the U.S. and "Bubbled Under" the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart at No. 104. A cover version by Connie Francis climbed the Hot 100 chart to number 46 in early 1964 despite being banned by a number of major-market radio stations who felt that capitalizing on a national tragedy was in poor taste. [81] Other versions of the song were recorded by Toni Arden, Kate Smith, Bobby Rydell, and gospel legend Mahalia Jackson. [82]

Phil Spector's Christmas album, A Christmas Gift for You from Phil Spector, was pulled from store shelves at Spector's request, having sold terribly since the public was not in the mood for cheery holiday music it was put back for sale for the 1964 season but did not chart until 1972. [ citation needed ]

The highly successful comedy album The First Family that parodied the Kennedys was quickly pulled from circulation which remained that way for many years. [ citation needed ]

Also in Britain (where the publishers of "In the Summer of His Years" refused to allow the song a single release by any British artist), Joe Meek, composer of The Tornado(e)s' hit "Telstar", released an instrumental titled "The Kennedy March" on Decca Records, with royalties marked to be sent to Jacqueline Kennedy for her to donate to charity. [82] The Briarwood Singers "Bubbled Under" the Billboard singles chart in December 1963 with a recording of the traditional folk song "He Was a Friend of Mine", which was later recorded (with new lyrics written specially by Jim McGuinn) in 1965 by the popular American band, The Byrds, on their second album, Turn! Turn! Turn!. [ citation needed ] In 1964, songwriter William Spivery penned "Mr. John," which became popular in the midwestern United States. Topical folksinger Phil Ochs paid tribute to Kennedy in his song, "That Was the President", written shortly after the assassination, and again two years later in his masterpiece "Crucifixion", connecting Kennedy and Christ. [83]


April 15: Notre Dame Cathedral fire

Just two years ago on April 15, 2019, fire swept across the top of the Notre Dame Cathedral as the soaring Paris landmark underwent renovations the blaze collapsed the cathedral’s spire and spread to one of its landmark rectangular towers, but fire officials said the church’s structure had been saved.

The steeple and spire collapses as smoke and flames engulf the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris on April 15, 2019. (Photo credit should read GEOFFROY VAN DER HASSELT/AFP via Getty Images)

Contents

Charlie Hebdo satirical works Edit

Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly newspaper that features cartoons, reports, polemics and jokes. The publication, irreverent and stridently non-conformist in tone, is strongly secularist, antireligious [6] and left-wing, publishing articles that mock Catholicism, Judaism, Islam and various other groups as local and world news unfolds. The magazine was published from 1969 to 1981 and has been again from 1992 on. [7]

Charlie Hebdo has a history of attracting controversy. In 2006, Islamic organisations under French hate speech laws unsuccessfully sued over the newspaper's re-publication of the Jyllands-Posten cartoons of Muhammad. [8] [9] [10] The cover of a 2011 issue retitled Charia Hebdo (French for Sharia Weekly), featured a cartoon of Muhammad, whose depiction is forbidden in most interpretations of Islam, with some Persian exceptions. [11] The newspaper's office was fire-bombed and its website hacked. [12] [13] In 2012, the newspaper published a series of satirical cartoons of Muhammad, including nude caricatures [14] [15] this came days after a series of violent attacks on U.S. embassies in the Middle East, purportedly in response to the anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims, prompting the French government to close embassies, consulates, cultural centres, and international schools in about 20 Muslim countries. [16] Riot police surrounded the newspaper's offices to protect it against possible attacks. [15] [17]

Cartoonist Stéphane "Charb" Charbonnier had been the director of publication of Charlie Hebdo since 2009. [18] Two years before the attack he stated, "We have to carry on until Islam has been rendered as banal as Catholicism." [19] In 2013, al-Qaeda added him to its most wanted list, along with three Jyllands-Posten staff members: Kurt Westergaard, Carsten Juste, and Flemming Rose. [18] [20] [21] Being a sport shooter, Charb applied for permit to be able to carry a firearm for self-defence. The application went unanswered. [22] [23]

Numerous violent plots related to the Jyllands-Posten cartoons were discovered, primarily targeting cartoonist Westergaard, editor Rose, and the property or employees of Jyllands-Posten and other newspapers that printed the cartoons. [a] Westergaard was the subject of several attacks and planned attacks, and lives under police protection. On 1 January 2010, police used guns to stop a would-be assassin in his home, [28] [29] who was sentenced to nine years in prison. [b] [30] [31] In 2010, three men based in Norway were arrested on suspicion of planning a terror attack against Jyllands-Posten or Kurt Westergaard two of them were convicted. [32] [33] In the United States, David Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana were convicted in 2013 of planning terrorism against Jyllands-Posten. [34] [35] [36]

Secularism and blasphemy Edit

In France, blasphemy law ceased to exist with progressive emancipation of the Republic from the Catholic Church between 1789 and 1830. In France, the principle of secularism (laïcité – the separation of church and state ) was enshrined in the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, and in 1945 became part of the constitution. Under its terms, the government and all public administrations and services must be religion-blind and their representatives must refrain from any display of religion, but private citizens and organisations are free to practise and express the religion of their choice where and as they wish (although discrimination based on religion is prohibited). [37]

In recent years there has been a trend towards a stricter interpretation of laïcité which would also prohibit users of public services from expressing their religion (e.g. the 2004 law which bans school pupils from wearing "blatant" religious symbols [38] ) or even ban citizens from expressing their religion in public even outside the administration and public services (e.g. a 2015 law project prohibiting the wearing of religious symbols by the employees of private crèches). This restrictive interpretation is not supported by the initial law on laïcité and is challenged by the representatives of all the major religions. [39]

Authors, humorists, cartoonists, and individuals have the right to satirise people, public actors, and religions, a right which is balanced by defamation laws. These rights and legal mechanisms were designed to protect freedom of speech from local powers, among which was the then-powerful Catholic Church in France. [40]

Though images of Muhammad are not explicitly banned by the Quran itself, prominent Islamic views have long opposed human images, especially those of prophets. Such views have gained ground among militant Islamic groups. [41] [42] [43] Accordingly, some Muslims take the view that the satire of Islam, of religious representatives, and above all of Islamic prophets is blasphemy in Islam punishable by death. [44] This sentiment was most famously actualized in the murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. According to the BBC, France has seen "the apparent desire of some younger, often disaffected children or grandchildren of immigrant families not to conform to western, liberal lifestyles – including traditions of religious tolerance and free speech". [45] Salafi scholar Muhammad Al-Munajjid indicates that the Islamic concept of gheerah (protective jealousy) requires that Muslims protect Muhammad from blasphemy. [46]

Charlie Hebdo headquarters Edit

On the morning of 7 January 2015, a Wednesday, Charlie Hebdo staff were gathered at 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert in the 11th arrondissement of Paris for the weekly editorial meeting starting around 10:30. The magazine had moved into an unmarked office at this address following the 2011 firebombing of their previous premises due to the magazine's original satirization of Muhammad. [47]

Around 11:00 am, two armed and hooded men first burst into the wrong address at 6 Rue Nicolas-Appert, shouting "Is this Charlie Hebdo?" and threatening people. After realizing their mistake and firing a bullet through a glass door, the two men left for 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert. [48] There, they encountered cartoonist Corinne "Coco" Rey and her young daughter outside and at gunpoint, forced her to enter the passcode into the electronic door. [49]

The men sprayed the lobby with gunfire upon entering. The first victim was maintenance worker Frédéric Boisseau, who was killed as he sat at the reception desk. [50] The gunmen forced Rey at gunpoint to lead them to a second-floor office, where 15 staff members were having an editorial meeting, [51] Charlie Hebdo ' s first news conference of the year. Reporter Laurent Léger said they were interrupted by what they thought was the sound of a firecracker—the gunfire from the lobby—and recalled, "We still thought it was a joke. The atmosphere was still joyous." [52]

The gunmen burst into the meeting room. The shooting lasted five to ten minutes. The gunmen aimed at the journalists' heads and killed them. [53] [54] During the gunfire, Rey survived uninjured by hiding under a desk, from where she witnessed the murders of Wolinski and Cabu. [55] Léger also survived by hiding under a desk as the gunmen entered. [56] Ten of the twelve people murdered were shot on the second floor, past the security door. [57]

Psychoanalyst Elsa Cayat, a French columnist of Tunisian Jewish descent, was killed. [58] Another female columnist present at the time, crime reporter Sigolène Vinson, survived one of the shooters aimed at her but spared her, saying, "I'm not killing you because you are a woman", and telling her to convert to Islam, read the Quran and wear a veil. She said he left shouting, "Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!" [59] [60] [61] [62] Other witnesses reported that the gunmen identified themselves as belonging to al-Qaeda in Yemen. [63]

Escape Edit

An authenticated video surfaced on the Internet that shows two gunmen and a police officer, Ahmed Merabet, who is wounded and lying on a sidewalk after an exchange of gunfire. This took place near the corner of Boulevard Richard-Lenoir and Rue Moufle, 180 metres (590 ft) east of the main crime scene. One of the gunmen ran towards the policeman and shouted, "Did you want to kill us?" The policeman answered, "No, it's fine, boss", and raised his hand toward the gunman, who then murdered the policeman with a fatal shot to the head at close range. [64]

Sam Kiley, of Sky News, concluded from the video that the two gunmen were "military professionals" who likely had "combat experience", saying that the gunmen were exercising infantry tactics such as moving in "mutual support" and were firing aimed, single-round shots at the police officer. He also stated that they were using military gestures and were "familiar with their weapons" and fired "carefully aimed shots, with tight groupings". [65]

The gunmen then left the scene, shouting (according to witnesses), "We have avenged the Prophet Muhammad. We have killed Charlie Hebdo!" [66] [67] [62] [61] They escaped in a getaway car, and drove to Porte de Pantin, hijacking another car and forcing its driver out. As they drove away, they ran over a pedestrian and shot at responding police officers. [68]

It was initially believed that there were three suspects. One identified suspect turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station. [69] [70] Seven of the Kouachi brothers' friends and family were taken into custody. [71] Jihadist flags and Molotov cocktails were found in an abandoned getaway car, a black Citroën C3. [72]

Motive Edit

Charlie Hebdo had attracted considerable worldwide attention for its controversial depictions of Muhammad. Hatred for Charlie Hebdo ' s cartoons, which made jokes about Islamic leaders as well as Muhammad, is considered to be the principal motive for the massacre. Michael Morell, former deputy director of the CIA, suggested that the motive of the attackers was "absolutely clear: trying to shut down a media organisation that lampooned the Prophet Muhammad". [73]

In March 2013, al-Qaeda's branch in Yemen, commonly known as al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), released a hit list in an edition of their English-language magazine Inspire. The list included Stéphane Charbonnier (mentioned above in this article as Charlie Hebdo editor who died in this shooting) and others whom AQAP accused of insulting Islam. [74] [75] On 9 January, AQAP claimed responsibility for the attack in a speech from AQAP's top Shariah cleric Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari, citing the motive as "revenge for the honour" of Muhammad. [76]

Killed Edit

    (Jean Cabut), 76, cartoonist. , 54, psychoanalyst and columnist – [77][78] the only woman killed in the shooting. [79] (Stéphane Charbonnier), 47, cartoonist, columnist, and director of publication of Charlie Hebdo. , 73, cartoonist. , 68, economist, editor, and columnist. [80][81]
  • Mustapha Ourrad, 60, copy editor. [82] (Bernard Verlhac), 57, cartoonist. [83] , 80, cartoonist. [84]
  • Frédéric Boisseau, 42, building maintenance worker for Sodexo, killed in the lobby as he came to the building on a call, the first victim of the shooting.
  • Franck Brinsolaro, 49, Protection Service police officer assigned as a bodyguard for Charb. [85]
  • Ahmed Merabet, 42, police officer, shot in the head as he lay wounded on the ground outside. [86]
  • Michel Renaud, 69, a travel writer and festival organiser visiting Cabu. [87]

Wounded Edit

    , journalist—shot in the face and left in a critical condition, but recovered. [88] , 59, journalist—shot in the leg. (Laurent Sourisseau), 48, cartoonist and editorial director—shot in the shoulder. [89]
  • Unidentified police officers. [51][90][91]

Uninjured and absent Edit

Several people at the meeting were unharmed, including book designer Gérard Gaillard, who was a guest, and staff members, Sigolène Vinson, [92] Laurent Léger [fr] , and Éric Portheault.

The cartoonist Coco was coerced into letting the murderers into the building, and was not harmed. [93] Several other staff members were not in the building at the time of the shooting, including medical columnist Patrick Pelloux, cartoonists Rénald "Luz" Luzier and Catherine Meurisse [fr] and film critic Jean-Baptiste Thoret [fr] , who were late for work, cartoonist Willem, who never attends, editor-in-chief Gérard Biard and journalist Zineb El Rhazoui who were on holiday, journalist Antonio Fischetti [fr] , who was at a funeral, and comedian and columnist Mathieu Madénian. Luz arrived in time to see the gunmen escaping. [94]

Chérif and Saïd Kouachi Edit

Biography Edit

Police quickly identified brothers Saïd Kouachi (French: [sa.id kwaʃi] 7 September 1980 – 9 January 2015) and Chérif Kouachi (French: [ʃeʁif] 29 November 1982 – 9 January 2015) as the main suspects. [c] French citizens born in Paris to Algerian immigrants, the brothers were orphaned at a young age after their mother's apparent suicide and placed in a foster home in Rennes. [96] After two years, they were moved to an orphanage in Corrèze in 1994, along with a younger brother and an older sister. [100] [101] The brothers moved to Paris around 2000. [102]

Chérif, also known as Abu Issen, was part of an informal gang that met in the Parc des Buttes Chaumont in Paris to perform military-style training exercises and sent would-be jihadists to fight for al-Qaeda in Iraq after the 2003 invasion. [103] [104] Chérif was arrested at age 22 in January 2005 when he and another man were about to leave for Syria, at the time a gateway for jihadists wishing to fight US troops in Iraq. [105] He went to Fleury-Mérogis Prison, where he met Amedy Coulibaly. [106] In prison, they found a mentor, Djamel Beghal, who had been sentenced to 10 years in prison in 2001 for his part in a plot to bomb the US embassy in Paris. [105] Beghal had once been a regular worshipper at Finsbury Park Mosque in London and a disciple of the radical preachers Abu Hamza al-Masri [107] and Abu Qatada.

Upon leaving prison, Chérif Kouachi married and got a job in a fish market on the outskirts of Paris. He became a student of Farid Benyettou, a radical Muslim preacher at the Addawa Mosque in the 19th arrondissement of Paris. Kouachi wanted to attack Jewish targets in France, but Benyettou told him that France, unlike Iraq, was not "a land of jihad". [108]

On 28 March 2008, Chérif was convicted of terrorism and sentenced to three years in prison, with 18 months suspended, for recruiting fighters for militant Islamist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's group in Iraq. [96] He said outrage at the torture of inmates by the US Army at Baghdad Central Prison in Abu Ghraib inspired him to help Iraq's insurgency. [109] [110]

French judicial documents state Amedy Coulibaly and Chérif Kouachi travelled with their wives in 2010 to central France to visit Djamel Beghal. In a police interview in 2010, Coulibaly identified Chérif as a friend he had met in prison and said they saw each other frequently. [111] In 2010, the Kouachi brothers were named in connection with a plot to break out of jail with another Islamist, Smaïn Aït Ali Belkacem. Belkacem was one of those responsible for the 1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings that killed eight people. [105] [112] For lack of evidence, they were not prosecuted.

From 2009 to 2010, Saïd Kouachi visited Yemen on a student visa to study at the San'a Institute for the Arabic Language. There, according to a Yemeni reporter who interviewed Saïd, he met and befriended Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the perpetrator of the attempted bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 later in 2009. Also according to the reporter, the two shared an apartment for "one or two weeks". [113]

In 2011, Saïd returned to Yemen for a number of months and trained with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula militants. [114] According to a senior Yemeni intelligence source, he met al Qaeda preacher Anwar al-Awlaki in the southern province of Shabwa. [115] Chérif Kouachi told BFM TV that he had been funded by a network loyal to Anwar al-Awlaki, who was killed by a drone strike in 2011 in Yemen. [116] According to US officials, the US provided France with intelligence in 2011 showing the brothers received training in Yemen. French authorities monitored them until the spring of 2014. [117] During the time leading to the Charlie Hebdo attack, Saïd lived with his wife and children in a block of flats in Reims. Neighbours described him as solitary. [ citation needed ]

The weapons used in the attack were supplied via the Brussels underworld. According to the Belgian press, a criminal sold Amedy Coulibaly the rocket-propelled grenade launcher and Kalashnikov rifles that the Kouachi brothers used for less than 5,000 euros. [118]

In an interview between Chérif Kouachi and Igor Sahiri, one of France's BFM TV journalists, Chérif stated that "We are not killers. We are defenders of the prophet, we don’t kill women. We kill no one. We defend the prophet. If someone offends the prophet then there is no problem, we can kill him. We don’t kill women. We are not like you. You are the ones killing women and children in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. This isn’t us. We have an honour code in Islam." [119]

After the attack: Manhunt (8 and 9 January) Edit

A massive manhunt began immediately after the attack. One suspect left his ID card in an abandoned getaway car. [120] [121] Police officers searched apartments in the Île-de-France region, in Strasbourg and in Reims. [122] [123]

Police detained several people during the manhunt for the two main suspects. A third suspect voluntarily reported to a police station after hearing he was wanted and was not charged. Police described the assailants as "armed and dangerous". France raised its terror alert to its highest level and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy regions.

At 10:30 CET on 8 January, the day following the attack, the two primary suspects were spotted in Aisne, north-east of Paris. Armed security forces, including the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (GIGN) and the Force d'intervention de la police nationale (FIPN), were deployed to the department to search for the suspects. [124]

Later that day, the police search concentrated on the Picardy, particularly the area around Villers-Cotterêts and the village of Longpont, after the suspects robbed a petrol station near Villers-Cotterêts, [125] then reportedly abandoned their car before hiding in a forest near Longpont. [126] Searches continued into the surrounding Forêt de Retz (130 km 2 ), one of the largest forests of France. [127]

The manhunt continued with the discovery of the two fugitive suspects early in the morning of 9 January. The Kouachis had hijacked a Peugeot 206 near the town of Crépy-en-Valois. They were chased by police cars for approximately 27 kilometres (17 miles) south down the N2 trunk road. At some point they abandoned their vehicle and an exchange of gunfire between pursuing police and the brothers took place near the commune of Dammartin-en-Goële, 35 kilometres (22 miles) northeast of Paris. Several blasts went off as well and Saïd Kouachi sustained a minor neck wound. Several others may have been injured as well but no one was killed in the gunfire. The suspects were not apprehended and escaped on foot. [128]

Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis, death of Chérif and Saïd (9 January) Edit

At around 9:30 am on 9 January 2015, the Kouachi brothers fled into the office of Création Tendance Découverte, a signage production company on an industrial estate in Dammartin-en-Goële. Inside the building were owner Michel Catalano and a male employee, 26-year-old graphics designer Lilian Lepère. Catalano told Lepère to go hide in the building and remained in his office by himself. [129] Not long after, a salesman named Didier went to the printworks on business. Catalano came out with Chérif Kouachi who introduced himself as a police officer. They shook hands and Kouachi told Didier, "Leave. We don't kill civilians anyhow." These words were what caused Didier to guess that Kouachi was a terrorist and he alerted the police. [130]

The Kouachi brothers remained inside and a lengthy standoff began. Catalano re-entered the building and closed the door after Didier had left. [131] The brothers were not aggressive towards Catalano, who stated, "I didn't get the impression they were going to harm me." He made coffee for them and helped bandage the neck wound that Saïd Kouachi had sustained during the earlier gunfire. Catalano was allowed to leave after an hour. [132] Catalano swore three times to the terrorists that he was alone and did not reveal Lepère's presence. The Kouachi brothers were never aware of him being there. Lepère hid inside a cardboard box and sent the Gendarmerie text messages for around three hours during the siege, providing them with "tactical elements such as [the brothers'] location inside the premises". [133]

Given the proximity (10 km) of the siege to Charles de Gaulle Airport, two of the airport's runways were closed. [128] [134] Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve called for a Gendarmerie operation to neutralise the perpetrators. An Interior Ministry spokesman announced that the Ministry wished first to "establish a dialogue" with the suspects. Officials tried to establish contact with the suspects to negotiate the safe evacuation of a school 500 metres (1,600 feet) from the siege. The Kouachi brothers did not respond to attempts at communication by the French authorities. [135]

The siege lasted for eight to nine hours, and at around 4:30 p.m. there were at least three explosions near the building. At around 5:00 pm, a GIGN team landed on the roof of the building and a helicopter landed nearby. [136] Before gendarmes could reach them, the pair ran out of the building and opened fire on gendarmes. The brothers had stated a desire to die as martyrs [137] and the siege came to an end when both Kouachi brothers were shot and killed. Lilian Lepère was rescued unharmed. [138] [139] A cache of weapons, including Molotov cocktails and a rocket launcher, was found in the area. [133]

During the standoff in Dammartin-en-Goële, another jihadist named Amedy Coulibaly, who had met the brothers in prison, [140] took hostages in a kosher supermarket at Porte de Vincennes in east Paris, killing those of Jewish faith while leaving the others alive. Coulibaly was reportedly in contact with the Kouachi brothers as the sieges progressed, and told police that he would kill hostages if the brothers were harmed. [128] [141] Coulibaly and the Kouachi brothers died within minutes of each other. [142]

Suspected Charlie Hebdo attack driver Edit

The police initially identified the 18-year-old brother-in-law of Chérif Kouachi, a French Muslim student of North African descent and unknown nationality, as a third suspect in the shooting, accused of driving the getaway car. [96] He was believed to have been living in Charleville-Mézières, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) northeast of Paris near the border with Belgium. [143] He turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station early in the morning on 8 January 2015. [143] The man said he was in class at the time of the shooting, and that he rarely saw Chérif Kouachi. [ citation needed ] Many of his classmates said that he was at school in Charleville-Mézières during the attack. [144] After detaining him for nearly 50 hours, police decided not to continue further investigations into the teenager. [145]

Peter Cherif Edit

In December 2018, French authorities arrested Peter Cherif also known as Abu Hamza, for playing an "important role in organizing" the Charlie Hebdo attack. [146] Not only was Cherif a close friend of brothers Chérif Kouachi and Saïd Kouachi, [147] but had been on the run from French authorities since 2011. Cherif fled Paris in 2011 just before a court sentenced him to five years in prison on terrorism charges for fighting as an insurgent in Iraq. [ citation needed ]

2020 trial Edit

On 2 September 2020, fourteen people went on trial in Paris charged with providing logistical support and procuring weapons for those who carried out both the Charlie Hebdo shooting and the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege. Of the fourteen on trial Mohamed and Mehdi Belhoucine and Amedy Coulibaly's girlfriend, Hayat Boumeddiene, were tried in absentia, having fled to either Iraq or Syria in the days before the attacks took place. [148] [149] In anticipation of the trial getting underway Charlie Hebdo reprinted cartoons of Muhammad with the caption:"Tout ça pour ça" ("All of that for this"). [150]

The trial was scheduled to be filmed for France's official archives. [151] On 16 December 2020, the trial concluded with all fourteen defendants being convicted by a French court. [5]

France Edit

The remaining staff of Charlie Hebdo continued normal weekly publication, and the following issue print run had 7.95 million copies in six languages. [152] In contrast, its normal print run was 60,000, of which it typically sold 30,000 to 35,000 copies. [153] The cover depicts Muhammad holding a "Je suis Charlie" sign ("I am Charlie"), and is captioned "Tout est pardonné" ("All is forgiven"). [154] The issue was also sold outside France. [155] The Digital Innovation Press Fund donated €250,000 to support the magazine, matching a donation by the French Press and Pluralism Fund. [156] [157] The Guardian Media Group pledged £100,000 to the same cause. [158]

On the night of 8 January, police commissioner Helric Fredou, who had been investigating the attack, committed suicide in his office in Limoges while he was preparing his report shortly after meeting with the family of one of the victims. He was said to have been experiencing depression and burnout. [ citation needed ]

In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings, grenade throwing at mosques and other Islamic centres, an improvised explosive device attack, [159] and 33 cases of threats and insults. [d] Authorities classified these acts as right-wing terrorism. [159]

On 7 January 2016, the first anniversary of the shooting, an attempted attack occurred at a police station in the Goutte d'Or district of Paris. The assailant, a Tunisian man posing as an asylum-seeker from Iraq or Syria, wearing a fake explosive belt charged police officers with a meat cleaver while shouting "Allahu Akbar!" and was subsequently shot and killed. [166] [167] [168] [169]

Denmark Edit

On 14 February 2015 in Copenhagen, Denmark, a public event called "Art, blasphemy and the freedom of expression", was organised to honour victims of the attack in January against the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo. A series of shootings took place that day and the following day in Copenhagen, with two people killed and five police officers wounded. The suspect, Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, a recently released, radicalized prisoner, was later shot dead by police on 15 February.

United States Edit

On 3 May 2015, two men attempted an attack on the Curtis Culwell Center in Garland, Texas. The centre was hosting an exhibit featuring cartoons depicting Muhammad. The event was presented as a response to the attack on Charlie Hebdo, and organised by the group American Freedom Defense Initiative (AFDI). [170] Both gunmen were killed by police.

Security Edit

Following the attack, France raised Vigipirate to its highest level in history: Attack alert, an urgent terror alert which triggered the deployment of soldiers in Paris to the public transport system, media offices, places of worship and the Eiffel Tower. [171] The British Foreign Office warned its citizens about travelling to Paris. The New York City Police Department ordered extra security measures to the offices of the Consulate General of France in New York in Manhattan's Upper East Side as well as the Lycée Français de New York, which was deemed a possible target due to the proliferation of attacks in France as well as the level of hatred of the United States within the extremist community. [54] In Denmark, which was the centre of a controversy over cartoons of Muhammad in 2005, security was increased at all media outlets. [172]

Hours after the shooting, Spanish Interior Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz said that Spain's anti-terrorist security level had been upgraded and that the country was sharing information with France in relation to the attacks. Spain increased security in public places such as railway stations and increased the police presence on streets throughout the country's cities. [173]

The British Transport Police confirmed on 8 January that they would establish new armed patrols in and around St Pancras International railway station in London, following reports that the suspects were moving north towards Eurostar stations. They confirmed that the extra patrols were for the reassurance of the public and to maintain visibility and that there were no credible reports yet of the suspects heading towards St Pancras. [174]

In Belgium, the staff of P-Magazine were given police protection, although there were no specific threats. P-Magazine had previously published a cartoon of Muhammad drawn by the Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard. [175]

Demonstrations Edit

7 January Edit

On the evening of the day of the attack, demonstrations against the attack were held at the Place de la République in Paris [176] and in other cities including Toulouse, [177] Nice, Lyon, Marseille and Rennes.

The phrase Je suis Charlie (French for "I am Charlie") came to be a common worldwide sign of solidarity against the attacks. [178] Many demonstrators used the slogan to express solidarity with the magazine. It appeared on printed and hand-made placards, and was displayed on mobile phones at vigils, and on many websites, particularly media sites such as Le Monde. The hashtag #jesuischarlie quickly trended at the top of Twitter hashtags worldwide following the attack. [179]

Not long after the attack, it is estimated that around 35,000 people gathered in Paris holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. 15,000 people also gathered in Lyon and Rennes. [180] 10,000 people gathered in Nice and Toulouse 7,000 in Marseille and 5,000 each in Nantes, Grenoble and Bordeaux. Thousands also gathered in Nantes at the Place Royale. [181] More than 100,000 people in total gathered within France to partake in these demonstrations the evening of 7 January. [182]

Demonstrators gather at the Place de la République in Paris on the night of the attack

Memorial for Ahmed Merabet

Tribute to Charlie Hebdo in Strasbourg

Tributes to the victims in Toulouse

Similar demonstrations and candle vigils spread to other cities outside France as well, including Amsterdam, [183] Brussels, Barcelona, [184] Ljubljana, [185] Berlin, Copenhagen, London and Washington, D.C. [186] Around 2,000 demonstrators gathered in London's Trafalgar Square and sang La Marseillaise, the French national anthem. [187] [188] In Brussels, two vigils have been held thus far, one immediately at the city's French consulate and a second one at Place du Luxembourg. Many flags around the city were at half-mast on 8 January. [189] In Luxembourg, a demonstration was held in the Place de la Constitution. [190]

A crowd gathered on the evening of 7 January, at Union Square in Manhattan, New York City. French ambassador to the United Nations François Delattre was present the crowd lit candles, held signs, and sang the French national anthem. [191] Several hundred people also showed up outside of the French consulate in San Francisco with "Je suis Charlie" signs to show their solidarity. [192] In downtown Seattle, another vigil was held where people gathered around a French flag laid out with candles lit around it. They prayed for the victims and held "Je suis Charlie" signs. [193] In Argentina, a large demonstration was held to denounce the attacks and show support for the victims outside the French embassy in the Buenos Aires. [194]

More vigils and gatherings were held in Canada to show support to France and condemn terrorism. Many cities had notable "Je suis Charlie" gatherings, including Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto. [195] In Calgary, there was a strong anti-terrorism sentiment. "We're against terrorism and want to show them that they won't win the battle. It's horrible everything that happened, but they won't win," commented one demonstrator. "It's not only against the French journalists or the French people, it's against freedom – everyone, all over the world, is concerned at what's happening." [196] In Montreal, despite a temperature of −21 °C (−6 °F), over 1,000 people gathered chanting "Liberty!" and "Charlie!" outside of the city's French Consulate. Montreal Mayor Denis Coderre was among the gatherers and proclaimed, "Today, we are all French!" He confirmed the city's full support for the people of France and called for strong support regarding freedom, stating that "We have a duty to protect our freedom of expression. We have the right to say what we have to say." [197] [198]

8 January Edit

By 8 January, vigils had spread to Australia, with thousands holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. In Sydney, people gathered at Martin Place – the location of a siege less than a month earlier – and in Hyde Park dressed in white clothing as a form of respect. Flags were at half-mast at the city's French consulate where mourners left bouquets. [199] A vigil was held at Federation Square in Melbourne with an emphasis on togetherness. French consul Patrick Kedemos described the gathering in Perth as "a spontaneous, grassroots event". He added, "We are far away but our hearts today [are] with our families and friends in France. It [was] an attack on the liberty of expression, journalists that were prominent in France, and at the same time it's an attack or a perceived attack on our culture." [200]

On 8 January over 100 demonstrations were held from 18:00 in the Netherlands at the time of the silent march in Paris, after a call to do so from the mayors of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, and other cities. Many Dutch government members joined the demonstrations. [201] [202]

French Embassy, Moscow, Russia

10–11 January Edit

Around 700,000 people walked in protest in France on 10 January. Major marches were held in Toulouse (attended by 180,000), Marseille (45,000), Lille (35–40,000), Nice (23–30,000), Pau (80,000), Nantes (75,000), Orléans (22,000), and Caen (6,000). [203]

On 11 January, up to 2 million people, including President Hollande and more than 40 world leaders, led a rally of national unity in the heart of Paris to honour the 17 victims. The demonstrators marched from Place de la République to Place de la Nation. 3.7 million joined demonstrations nationwide in what officials called the largest public rally in France since World War II. [e]

There were also large marches in many other French towns and cities, and marches and vigils in many other cities worldwide. [f]

Arrests of "apologists for terrorism" Edit

About 54 people in France, who had publicly supported the attack on Charlie Hebdo, were arrested as "apologists for terrorism" and about 12 people were sentenced to several months in jail. [210] [211] Comedian Dieudonné faces the same charges for having written on Facebook "I feel like Charlie Coulibaly". [212]

Planned attacks in Belgium Edit

Following a series of police raids in Belgium, in which two suspected terrorists were killed in a shootout in the city of Verviers, Belgian police stated that documents seized after the raids appear to show that the two were planning to attack sellers of the next edition of Charlie Hebdo released following the attack in Paris. [213] Police named the men killed in the raid as Redouane Hagaoui and Tarik Jadaoun. [213]

Protests following resumed publication Edit

Unrest in Niger following the publication of the post-attack issue of Charlie Hebdo resulted in ten deaths, [214] dozens injured, and at least 45 churches were burned down. [215] The Guardian reported seven churches burned in Niamey alone. Churches were also reported to be on fire in eastern Maradi and Goure. There were violent demonstrations in Karachi in Pakistan, where Asif Hassan, a photographer working for the Agence France-Presse, was seriously injured by a shot to the chest. In Algiers and Jordan, protesters clashed with police, and there were peaceful demonstrations in Khartoum, Sudan, Russia, Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. [216] In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings and grenade-throwing at mosques and other Islamic centres and 33 cases of threats and insults. [g]

RT reported that a million people attended a demonstration in Grozny, the capital city of the Chechen Republic, protesting the depictions of Muhammad in Charlie Hebdo and proclaiming that Islam is a religion of peace. One of the slogans was "Violence is not the method". [ citation needed ]

On 8 February 2015 the Muslim Action Forum, an Islamic rights organization, orchestrated a mass demonstration outside Downing Street in London. Placards read, "Stand up for the Prophet" and "Be careful with Muhammad". [217]

French government Edit

President François Hollande addressed media outlets at the scene of the shooting and called it "undoubtedly a terrorist attack", adding that "several [other] terrorist attacks were thwarted in recent weeks". [218] He later described the shooting as a "terrorist attack of the most extreme barbarity", [10] called the slain journalists "heroes", [219] and declared a day of national mourning on 8 January. [220]

At a rally in the Place de la République in the wake of the shooting, mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo said, "What we saw today was an attack on the values of our republic Paris is a peaceful place. These cartoonists, writers and artists used their pens with a lot of humour to address sometimes awkward subjects and as such performed an essential function." She proposed that Charlie Hebdo "be adopted as a citizen of honour" by Paris. [221]

Prime Minister Manuel Valls said that his country was at war with terrorism, but not at war with Islam or Muslims. [222] French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said, "The terrorists' religion is not Islam, which they are betraying. It's barbarity." [223]

Other countries Edit

The attack received immediate condemnation from dozens of governments worldwide. International leaders including Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin, Stephen Harper, Narendra Modi, Benjamin Netanyahu, Angela Merkel, Matteo Renzi, David Cameron, Mark Rutte and Tony Abbott offered statements of condolence and outrage. [224]

Media Edit

Some English-language media outlets republished the cartoons on their websites in the hours following the shootings. Prominent examples included Bloomberg News, The Huffington Post, The Daily Beast, Gawker, Vox, and The Washington Free Beacon. [h]

Other news organisations covered the shootings without showing the drawings, such as The New York Times, New York Daily News, CNN, [231] Al Jazeera America, [232] Associated Press, NBC, MSNBC, and The Daily Telegraph. [231] Accusations of self-censorship came from the websites Politico [232] and Slate. [231] The BBC, which previously had guidelines against all depictions of Muhammad, showed a depiction of him on a Charlie Hebdo cover and announced that they were reviewing these guidelines. [233]

Other media publications such as Germany's Berliner Kurier and Poland's Gazeta Wyborcza reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo the day after the attack the former had a cover of Muhammad reading Charlie Hebdo whilst bathing in blood. [234] At least three Danish newspapers featured Charlie Hebdo cartoons, and the tabloid BT used one on its cover depicting Muhammad lamenting being loved by "idiots". [172] The German newspaper Hamburger Morgenpost re-published the cartoons, and their office was fire-bombed. [235] [236] In Russia, LifeNews and Komsomolskaya Pravda suggested that the US had carried out the attack. [237] [238] "We are Charlie Hebdo" appeared on the front page of Novaya Gazeta. [238] Russia's media supervision body, Roskomnadzor, stated that publication of the cartoons could lead to criminal charges. [239]

Russian President Vladimir Putin has sought to harness and direct Muslim anger over the Charlie Hebdo cartoons against the West. [240] Putin is believed to have backed protests by Muslims in Russia against Charlie Hebdo and the West. [241]

In China, the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper, Global Times, said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism. [242] [243]

Media organisations carried out protests against the shootings. Libération, Le Monde, Le Figaro, and other French media outlets used black banners carrying the slogan "Je suis Charlie" across the tops of their websites. [244] The front page of Libération ' s printed version was a different black banner that stated, "Nous sommes tous Charlie" ("We are all Charlie"), while Paris Normandie renamed itself Charlie Normandie for the day. [172] The French and UK versions of Google displayed a black ribbon of mourning on the day of the attack. [10]

Ian Hislop, editor of the British satirical magazine Private Eye, stated, "I am appalled and shocked by this horrific attack – a murderous attack on free speech in the heart of Europe. . Very little seems funny today." [245] The editor of Titanic, a German satirical magazine, declared, "[W]e are scared when we hear about such violence. However, as a satirist, we are beholden to the principle that every human being has the right to be parodied. This should not stop just because of some idiots who go around shooting". [246] Many cartoonists from around the world responded to the attack on Charlie Hebdo by posting cartoons relating to the shooting. [247] Among them was Albert Uderzo, who came out of retirement at age 87 to depict his character Astérix supporting Charlie Hebdo. [248] In Australia, what was considered the iconic national cartoonist's reaction [249] was a cartoon by David Pope in the Canberra Times, depicting a masked, black-clad figure with a smoking rifle standing poised over a slumped figure of a cartoonist in a pool of blood, with a speech balloon showing the gunman saying, "He drew first." [250]

In India, Mint ran the photographs of copies of Charlie Hebdo on their cover, but later apologised after receiving complaints from the readers. [251] The Hindu also issued an apology after it printed a photograph of some people holding copies of Charlie Hebdo. [252] The editor of the Urdu newspaper Avadhnama, Shireen Dalvi, which printed the cartoons faced several police complaints. She was arrested and released on bail. She began to wear the burqa for the first time in her life and went into hiding. [253] [254]

Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm featured drawings by young cartoonists signed with "Je suis Charlie" in solidarity with the victims. [255] Al-Masry al-Youm also displayed on their website a slide show of some Charlie Hebdo cartoons, including controversial ones. This was seen by analyst Jonathan Guyer as a "surprising" and maybe "unprecedented" move, due to the pressure Arab artists can be subject to when depicting religious figures. [256]

In Los Angeles, the Jewish Journal weekly changed its masthead that week to Jewish Hebdo and published the offending Muhammad cartoons. [257]

The Guardian reported that many Muslims and Muslim organisations criticised the attack while some Muslims support it and other Muslims stated they would only condemn it if France condemned the killings of Muslims worldwide". [258] Zvi Bar'el argued in Haaretz that believing the attackers represented Muslims was like believing that Ratko Mladić represented Christians. [259] Al Jazeera English editor and executive producer Salah-Aldeen Khadr attacked Charlie Hebdo as the work of solipsists, and sent out a staff-wide e-mail where he argued: "Defending freedom of expression in the face of oppression is one thing insisting on the right to be obnoxious and offensive just because you can is infantile." The e-mail elicited different responses from within the organisation. [260] [ clarification needed ]

The Shia Islamic journal Ya lasarat Al-Hussein, founded by Ansar-e Hezbollah, praised the shooting, saying, "[the cartoonists] met their legitimate justice, and congratulations to all Muslims" and "according to fiqh of Islam, punishment of insulting of Muhammad is death penalty". [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266]

Activist organisations Edit

Reporters Without Borders criticised the presence of leaders from Egypt, Russia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, saying, "On what grounds are representatives of regimes that are predators of press freedom coming to Paris to pay tribute to Charlie Hebdo, a publication that has always defended the most radical concept of freedom of expression?" [267]

Hacktivist group Anonymous released a statement in which they offered condolences to the families of the victims and denounced the attack as an "inhuman assault" on freedom of expression. They addressed the terrorists: "[a] message for al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and other terrorists – we are declaring war against you, the terrorists." As such, Anonymous plans to target jihadist websites and social media accounts linked to supporting Islamic terrorism with the aim of disrupting them and shutting them down. [268]

Muslim reactions Edit

Condemning the attack Edit

Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Morocco, Algeria, and Qatar all denounced the incident, as did Egypt's Al-Azhar University, the leading Sunni institution of the Muslim world. [258] Islamic organisations, including the French Council of the Muslim Faith, the Muslim Council of Britain and Islamic Forum of Europe, spoke out against the attack. Sheikh Abdul Qayum and Imam Dalil Boubakeur stated, "[We] are horrified by the brutality and the savagery." [269] The Union of Islamic Organisations of France released a statement condemning the attack, and Imam Hassen Chalghoumi stated that those behind the attack "have sold their soul to hell". [270]

The US-based Muslim civil liberties group, the Council on American–Islamic Relations, condemned the attacks and defended the right to freedom of speech, "even speech that mocks faiths and religious figures". [271] The vice president of the US Ahmadiyya Muslim Community condemned the attack, saying, "The culprits behind this atrocity have violated every Islamic tenet of compassion, justice, and peace." [272] The National Council of Canadian Muslims, a Muslim civil liberties organisation, also condemned the attacks. [273]

The League of Arab States released a collective condemnation of the attack. Al-Azhar University released a statement denouncing the attack, stating that violence was never appropriate regardless of "offence committed against sacred Muslim sentiments". [274] The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation condemned the attack, saying that it went against Islam's principles and values. [275]

Both the Palestinian Liberation Organization and the Hamas government of the Gaza Strip stated that "differences of opinion and thought cannot justify murder". [276] The leader of Hezbollah, Hassan Nasrallah declared that "takfiri terrorist groups" had insulted Islam more than "even those who have attacked the Prophet". [277] [278]

Malek Merabet, the brother of Ahmed Merabet, a Muslim police officer killed in the shooting, condemned the terrorists who killed his brother: "My brother was Muslim and he was killed by two terrorists, by two false Muslims". [279] Just hours after the shootings, the mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, a Muslim born in Morocco, condemned Islamist extremists living in the West who "turn against freedom" and told them to "fuck off". [280]

Supporting the attack Edit

Saudi-Australian Islamic preacher Junaid Thorne said: "If you want to enjoy 'freedom of speech' with no limits, expect others to exercise 'freedom of action'." [281] Anjem Choudary, a radical British Islamist, wrote an editorial in USA Today in which he professes justification from the words of Muhammad that those who insult the prophets of Islam should face death, and that Muhammad should be protected to prevent further violence. [282] Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia [283] said that "as a result, it is assumed necessary in all cases to ensure that the pressure does not exceed the red lines, which will then ultimately lead to irreversible problems". [284] Bahujan Samaj Party leader Yaqub Qureishi, a Muslim MLA and former Minister from Uttar Pradesh in India, offered a reward of ₹ 510 million (US$8 million) to the perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shootings. [i] On 14 January, about 1,500 Filipino Muslims held a rally in Muslim-majority Marawi in support of the attacks. [289]

Two Islamist newspapers in Turkey ran headlines that were criticised on social media as justifying the attack. The Yeni Akit ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that provoked Muslims", and Türkiye ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that insulted our Prophet". [296] Reuters reported a rally in support of the shootings in southern Afghanistan, where the demonstrators called the gunmen "heroes" who meted out punishment for the disrespectful cartoons. The demonstrators also protested Afghan President Ashraf Ghani's swift condemnation of the shootings. [297] Around 40 to 60 [298] people gathered in Peshawar, Pakistan, to praise the killers, with a local cleric holding a funeral for the killers, lionizing them as "heroes of Islam." [299] [300]

Schools Edit

Le Figaro reported that in a Seine-Saint-Denis primary school, up to 80% of the pupils refused [301] to participate in the minute of silence that the French government decreed for schools. [302] A student told a teacher, "I'll drop you with a Kalashnikov, mate." Other teachers were told Charlie Hebdo "had it coming", and "Me, I'm for the killers". One teacher requested to be transferred. [301] They also reported that students from a vocational school in Senlis tried to attack and beat students from a neighbouring school while saying "we will kill more Charlie Hebdos". The incident is being investigated by authorities who are handling 37 proceedings of "terrorism glorification" and 17 proceedings of threats of violence in schools. [303]

La Provence reported that a fight broke out in the l'Arc à Orange high school during the minute of silence, as a result of a student post on a social network welcoming the atrocities. The student was later penalised for posting the message. [304] Le Point reported on the "provocations" at a grade school in Grenoble, and cited a girl who said "Madame, people won't let the insult of a drawing of the prophet pass by, it is normal to take revenge. This is more than a joke, it's an insult!" [305]

Le Monde reported that the majority of students they met at Saint-Denis condemned the attack. For them, life is sacred, but so is religion. Marie-Hélène, age 17, said "I didn't really want to stand for the one minute silence, I didn't think it was right to pay homage to a man who insulted Islam and other religions too". Abdul, age 14, said "of course everyone stood for the one minute silence, and that includes all Muslims. I did it for those who were killed, but not for Charlie. I have no pity for him, he had no respect for us Muslims". It also reported that for most students at the Paul Eluard high school in Saint-Denis, freedom of expression is perceived as being "incompatible with their faith". For Erica, who describes herself as Catholic, "there are wrongs on both sides". A fake bomb was planted in the faculty lounge at the school. [306]

France Télévisions reported that a fourth-grade student told her teacher, "We will not be insulted by a drawing of the prophet, it is normal that we take revenge." It also reported that the fake bomb contained the message "I Am Not Charlie". [307]

Public figures Edit

The Head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, said "we will not allow anyone to insult the prophet, even if it costs us our lives." [308]

Salman Rushdie, who is on the al-Qaeda hit list [18] [75] and received death threats over his novel The Satanic Verses, said, "I stand with Charlie Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and stupidity . religious totalitarianism has caused a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam and we see the tragic consequences in Paris today." [309]

Swedish artist Lars Vilks, also on the al-Qaeda hit list [75] for publishing his own satirical drawings of Muhammad, condemned the attacks and said that the terrorists "got what they wanted. They've scared people. People were scared before, but with this attack fear will grow even larger" [310] and that the attack "expose[s] the world we live in today". [311]

American journalist David Brooks wrote an article titled "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo" in The New York Times, arguing that the magazine's humor was childish, but necessary as a voice of satire. He also criticised many of those in America who were ostensibly voicing support for free speech, noting that were the cartoons to be published in an American university newspaper, the editors would be accused of "hate speech" and the university would "have cut financing and shut them down." He called on the attacks to be an impetus toward tearing down speech codes. [312]

American linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky views the popularisation of the Je suis Charlie slogan by politicians and media in the West as hypocritical, comparing the situation to the NATO bombing of the Radio Television of Serbia headquarters in 1999, when 16 employees were killed. "There were no demonstrations or cries of outrage, no chants of 'We are RTV'," he noted. Chomsky also mentioned other incidents where US military forces have caused higher civilian death tolls, without leading to intensive reactions such as those that followed the 2015 Paris attacks. [313]

German politician Sahra Wagenknecht, the deputy leader of the party Die Linke in the German Parliament, has compared the US drone attacks in Afghanistan, Pakistan or Yemen with the terrorist attacks in Paris. ″If a drone controlled by the West extinguishes an innocent Arab or Afghan family, which is just a despicable crime as the attacks in Paris, and it should fill us with the same sadness and the same horror". We should not operate a double standard. Through the drone attacks had been "murdered thousands of innocent people", in the concerned countries, this created helplessness, rage and hatred: "Thereby we prepare the ground for the terror, we officially want to fight." The politician stressed that this war is also waged from German ground. Regarding the Afghanistan war with German participation for years, she said: "Even the Bundeswehr is responsible for the deaths of innocent people in Afghanistan." As the most important consequence of the terrorist attacks in Paris, Wagenknecht demanded the end of all military operations of the West in the Middle East. [314] [315]

Cartoonist-journalist Joe Sacco expressed grief for the victims in a comic strip, and wrote

but . tweaking the noses of Muslims . has never struck me as anything other than a vapid way to use the pen . I affirm our right to "take the piss" . but we can try to think why the world is the way it is . and [retaliating with violence against Muslims] is going to be far easier than sorting out how we fit in each other's world. [316]

Japanese famous film director, Hayao Miyazaki expressed his opinion about the attack and gave his opinion about the magazine decision to publish the content cited as the trigger for the incident. He said, "I think it's a mistake to caricaturize the figures venerated by another culture. You shouldn't do it." He assert, "Instead of doing something like that, you should first make caricatures of your own country's politicians." Charlie Hebdo had already published numerous caricatures of European public officials in the years prior to the attack. [317] [318]

Political Scientist Norman Finkelstein criticized the Western response to the shooting, comparing Charlie Hebdo to Julius Streicher saying "So two despairing and desperate young men act out their despair and desperation against this political pornography no different than Der Stürmer, who in the midst of all of this death and destruction decide it's somehow noble to degrade, demean, humiliate and insult the people. I'm sorry, maybe it is very politically incorrect. I have no sympathy for [the staff of Charlie Hebdo]. Should they have been killed? Of course not. But of course, Streicher shouldn't have been hung [sic]. I don't hear that from many people." [319]

Social media Edit

French Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve declared that by the morning of 9 January 2015, a total of 3,721 messages "condoning the attacks" had already been documented through the French government Pharos system. [320] [321]

In an open letter titled "To the Youth in Europe and North America", Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged young people in Europe and North America not to judge Islam by the attacks, but to seek their own understanding of the religion. [322] Holly Dagres of Al-Monitor wrote that Khamenei’s followers "actively spammed Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google+ and even Tumblr with links" to the letter with the aim of garnering the attention of people in the West. [323]

On social media, the hashtag "#JeSuisAhmed" trended, a tribute to the Muslim policeman Ahmed Merabet, along with the quote "I am not Charlie, I am Ahmed the dead cop. Charlie ridiculed my faith and culture and I died defending his right to do so." [324] [325] [326] The Economist compared this to a quote commonly misattributed to Voltaire, "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it". [327]


How Did Martin Luther King Die? 9 Facts About MLK's Assassination You May Not Have Known

He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott, marched on Washington before giving one of the most famous speeches in American history and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, but on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr.’s life, dedicated to advancing African-American civil rights in the U.S., came to an end when he was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. King was in the southern city to give a speech about sanitation workers, and after stepping out on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel where he was staying, he was shot and killed by fugitive James Earl Ray.

King and his dream were not forgotten after his death, and every third Monday of January — around his birthday of Jan. 15 — the U.S. celebrates him with Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Here are some facts you may not know about the American martyr and his assassination.

1. The last people to see him alive: King was supposed to have dinner at the home of Memphis minister Samuel “Billy” Kyles before his assassination. He was standing with Kyles on his balcony of room 306, where King was staying, along with Ralph Abernathy of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference when he was shot, according to Stanford University. Abernathy cradled King’s head as he died.

2. The 40 th Academy Awards: Three days after King’s death, a national day of mourning was declared by President Lyndon Johnson. Schools, businesses and libraries closed for the day, and the Academy awards were even postponed, according to Syracuse.com. The award ceremony was pushed back to April 10.

3. King gave his last sermon the day before he was killed: King’s last sermon was given April 3 in Memphis, according to History.com. It was at the sermon where he gave his famous “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech, in which he spoke of nonviolent protests and boycotts.

“We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop . And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain,” King said. “And I’ve looked over, and I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.”

4. King faced an assassination attempt years earlier: King was signing copies of his book “Stride Toward Freedom” in 1958 in Harlem when a woman approached him asking if he was Martin Luther King Jr., according to History.com. Izola Ware Curry said she had been looking for King for years before stabbing him in the chest with a 7-inch letter opener. After undergoing hours of surgery and spending weeks recovering in a hospital bed, King said he had no ill will toward the attacker, who was mentally ill.

5. King’s assassin pleaded guilty before eventually withdrawing the plea: James Earl Ray pleaded guilty to King’s death in 1969 to avoid execution in the electric chair, and was instead sentenced to 99 years behind bars. It took him three days to withdraw the plea, saying he was only part of a conspiracy. He requested new trials for the next 29 years, all of which were denied. He died in 1998.

6. Lyndon Johnson wasn’t at King’s funeral: Johnson didn’t attend King’s funeral, although he did declare a national day of mourning after the assassination, according to Syracuse.com. He made his way to a memorial service, but because of the unpopular Vietnam War, Johnson didn’t appear in public much at the time.

7. The assassination spot is now home to a museum: The National Civil Rights Museum is built around the former Lorraine Motel where King was assassinated. There is a $15 admission fee for non-Tennessee residents.

8. It is likely his assassin stalked him before the attack: There was a high probability that Ray stalked King before shooting him. The stalking likely would have occurred about March 17, 1968, when he left Los Angeles, and some who knew him in California told investigators that Ray had made comments to them on separate occasions of his plans to travel east, according to the National Archives and Records Administration.


Life and Religion

On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was scheduled to be in Durham to help mobilize Black voters.


He was invited by Dr. Reginald Hawkins, a Charlotte dentist and the first Black man to run for governor of North Carolina, and Eva Clayton, a young mother and activist living in Warren County.


Clayton had volunteered to run for Congress that year and was thrilled about King&rsquos arrival and participation. A fellow Georgia native, she knew that this moment would be life-altering for Black North Carolinians.


&ldquoDr. King had promised to come, and we knew that his coming would inspire more people to be engaged in voter registration,&rdquo said Clayton, who was 33 years old at the time.


Instead, King was pulled to Memphis, Tennessee due to a violent strike involving sanitation workers and cancelled his trip to the Tar Heel state. The excitement of his visit was soon replaced with mourning after the young leader and pastor was assassinated. Violence erupted in cities around the state, including Durham where 13 fires were set.


Clayton said that if King had come to North Carolina as planned, he would have made a &ldquohuge difference&rdquo for Black people. Still, she believes he did. More Black North Carolinians soon became more politically engaged than they had been before.


&ldquoThe very fact that he wanted to come, didn&rsquot come and his death occurred, I can tell you, there was a tremendous response,&rdquo said Clayton, a graduate of Johnson C. Smith University. &ldquoHis life, even his death caused registration to go up much more than I could have ever done.&rdquo


In North Carolina during the civil rights movement, there were countless demonstrations, rallies and marches in the fight for voting rights and racial equality. The need for change was bursting and young people like Clayton knew that political representation was a solution.


After passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, there was an immense push for Black people to not only register to vote but to also run as candidates during the 1968 election cycle. Clayton was one of the few Black North Carolinians to run that year and though she lost, the campaign&rsquos energy was an inspiration to continue as a political and civic activist.


In 1992, Clayton and Mel Watt of Charlotte became the first Black North Carolinians elected to Congress since George Henry White in 1901 when the state constitution was amended to disenfranchise Black voters.


Representing the state&rsquos 1st Congressional District for five terms, Clayton fought to ensure eastern North Carolinians and rural residents had stronger economic development, education, agriculture. She also manned efforts to address hunger in the state.


Clayton&rsquos activism in the civil rights movement started when she moved to Warren County with her husband and saw a need to register Black voters there. Once, she picketed her husband&rsquos law office because it contained a segregated restaurant.


Despite all the work she and leaders like King had accomplished, Claytton believes there is still ample work to be done to ensure a safer, fairer democracy.
&ldquoDr. King&rsquos words and his positions and some of the same issues he fought, we continue to fight,&rdquo she said. &ldquoWe shouldn&rsquot be discouraged by that. It just means we have to fight harder.&rdquo


On Jan. 5, Georgia elected its first Black senator since Reconstruction, the Rev. Raphael Warnock. He is also the pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, King&rsquos former church. Less than 24 hours later, insurrectionist Trump supporters stormed the U.S. Capitol parading confederate flags and terrorizing lawmakers.


&ldquoI was very, very disheartened,&rdquo said Clayton, who watched the news with her grandson. &ldquoMy reason was, &lsquodid it have to come to this?&rsquo and his reason was, &lsquohow dare we come to this?&rsquo It was painful to see people want to overthrow our government.&rdquo


Clayton said American democracy is &ldquofragile&rdquo and believes there needs to be more accountability for leaders like President Donald Trump and other Republicans who participated in efforts to challenge the outcome of the November election.


&ldquoAnother of Dr. King&rsquos messages that&rsquos appropriate for what we saw&hellip he put it in this way, &lsquowe will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends,&rsquo&rdquo said Clayton, quoting King from his 1965 speech about Americans who would not stand up against racial discrimination.


She said the silence and complacency of some congressional members up until last week&rsquos insurrection spoke volumes.


&ldquoThey were complicit when there were obviously troubling signs of this president from Charlottesville to immigrant children in cages. We had to wait until the house is burning down,&rdquo said Clayton, who added racism is still a problem despite the progress made since the 1960s and after King&rsquos assassination.


&ldquoThere&rsquos lingering structural, systematic racism and denial in terms of poverty,&rdquo she said. &ldquoPeople are denied in terms of where the live, the education they get, Blacks are still subject to police brutality, the list goes on.&rdquo


Still, Clayton is optimistic about the fight for equity and democracy. She credits the work of young people in helping bridge the gap and inspire older generations to &ldquoopen their eyes&rdquo to new perspectives. Young people were cited as a large voting bloc that carried Biden and Harris to the White House this November.


Now 86, the former congresswoman continues to encourage North Carolinians to be involved in their communities and to be inspired by leaders like King, whom she undoubtedly believes has his hand is still involved in the efforts to uplift Black Americans and marginalized communities.


&ldquoWe must reinforce how important it is register people and educate them. The more we are successful like they were in Georgia, particularly for Black or Jewish people, we have to be honest, there are those people who think they ought to be anti us,&rdquo Clayton said. &ldquoBut we ought to make that as American as anything else. We have to make sure there are no excuses for violence.&rdquo


‘Mad Men’ Recap: Shot Rings Out in the Memphis Sky

One of my all-time favorite moments on Mad Men is a 57-second scene in the Season Three episode “The Grown-Ups.” Pete is bitching to Harry about being passed over as head of accounts when the television switches to a black screen with the word “Bulletin” written in a large font, the sound having conveniently been turned down at Pete’s request. In that subtle gesture, along with a shot of Don walking down the hall to the drone of dozens of unanswered phones, President Kennedy’s death is thrust upon the Sterling Cooper employees, and within minutes, Pete’s first-world problems don’t seem so apocalyptic anymore.

It was unlikely Matthew Weiner would be able to top the raw emotional sucker punch of November 22nd, 1963, when it came time to tackle the Martin Luther King Jr. assassination. But he didn’t need to, because the country was in a very different place in 1968 than it was four and a half years earlier. As his characters demonstrated, April 1968 is a way more jaded era. There was pain and there was heartache, but Dr. King’s murder was much less of a shock to these people than when John F. Kennedy was killed. This time around, everyone was upset &ndash but for the wrong reasons. They used King’s death as an excuse to unleash their fury, to avoid their responsibilities, to seize a career opportunity, to save a bit of money. Throughout most of the episode, it seemed as though the civil rights leader died in vain. But in actuality, this national tragedy was the catalyst for a felicitous development not only in Peggy and Abe‘s relationship, but in Don’s life as well.

The Mourning After
In order to get most of the major Mad Men players in the same room in the early evening ( it wasn’t morning, Mr. Hewson ) of April 4th , the writers concocted an advertising-awards ceremony plot conceit that had a speech by Paul Newman (an actor shot from a very long angle) interrupted by an anonymous voice in the crowd announcing Martin Luther King had been shot. While the SCDP and CGC crews absorbed the dire news from Memphis, Ginsberg was out with a nice Jewish girl named Beverly Farber , the two having been Crossing Delancey ‘d by their chess-playing dads. The report on the diner radio wound up killing whatever mood was slowly building between the fast-talking copywriter and the Hunter College student teacher, but I’m optimistic for a second date. After all, Beverly didn’t bolt after Ginsberg let it slip that he’s still a virgin. And Morris Ginsberg seems to think the best way for his son to combat his grief is a romp in the sheets with Beverly. The episode’s title, “The Flood,” comes from Morris’ analogy of the King assassination to the biblical story of Noah’s Ark: Everyone needs a partner, especially during a time of nationwide sorrow.

Ginsberg’s story line is one of many throughout the episode that explores the arguably misguided effect King’s murder had on Americans. There is not one instance that discusses King’s direct impact on civil rights, or on any of the characters on Mad Men. The only African-American characters of note, Dawn and Peggy’s secretary Phyllis, are in one scene apiece, and their presence is merely to demonstrate how far removed the main characters are to their black secretaries’ experience. Don, thinking he’s doing the right thing, tries to send Dawn home the day after the assassination, when in reality, all Dawn wants is a bit of normalcy &ndash so she insists on staying at the office. Joan‘s botched attempt at giving Dawn a hug was just the right comedic touch at such a sober moment.

There’s not much work getting done on April 5th, so tempers are reaching their boiling point at the SCDP offices. Pete and Harry, in a superb anti-homage to their aforementioned scene from “The Grown-Ups,” with Vincent Kartheiser and Rich Sommer doing their best work of the season so far, get into a shouting match over how the King assassination has infringed upon their day-to-day lives. Harry is pissed the special reports pre-empted so many of their clients’ commercials, while Pete slams him for his lack of sensitivity, calling him a racist. At least Harry is being honest. Pete is using the assassination as a cover for his frustration that Trudy won’t let him back into the house. He may throw around lines like “It’s a shameful, shameful day!” but it’s not like he ever joined Paul Kinsey and the Freedom Riders for a trip down South. Still, King’s murder made Pete realize his mortality and his love for his wife and daughter (he sets Harry straight by reminding him that King was a man with “a wife and four children”).

The inadvertent positive effect of the King assassination also trickled down into Abe’s journalistic career &ndash he scored assignments reporting for The New York Times in Harlem &ndash as well his personal life. At the start of the episode, Peggy is about to move on up to the East Side, to a deluxe apartment in the skyyy . . . But following the news of April 4th, her sketchy real estate agent persuades her to take advantage of the tense uptown atmosphere by offering a lower sum than the apartment’s asking price. The plan ends up backfiring, and now Abe, relieved he doesn’t have to move to the white-bread Upper East Side, is encouraging his girlfriend to buy something in the “West 80s.” And Peggy has fallen hook, line and sinker for this plan, even though Abe’s not ponying up a cent for this purchase. Why? Because he slipped the phrase “raising our kids” into his argument for moving into a more “diverse area.” Those three little words knocked all sense of pragmatism out of Peggy’s head and reduced her to a giggling schoolgirl. Don’t let that guy’s name appear on any legal documents until he’s put a ring on it, Pegs.

Don spends the episode as he usually does whenever something heavy goes down &ndash avoiding the issue. Preoccupied with his own selfish thoughts, and making countless phone calls trying to track down Sylvia, who is down in riot-plagued Washington D.C., Don is snapped back into reality when Betty guilts him into taking the kids for the weekend. Instead of setting an example for his family by attending a vigil in Central Park with Megan, Sally and Gene, Don takes Bobby &ndash who has more lines in this episode than he has had in five whole seasons &ndash to see Planet of the Apes. His initial intention for the outing is to lose himself in a fantasy world, but Bobby’s innocent comment to a black usher sweeping up popcorn about how people go to the movies when they’re sad, touches a long-dormant nerve that may or may not turn the tide on his downward spiral. Later that evening, after Megan chastises him for his aloof behavior at a time when his kids need him the most, Don confides in her that he has been pretending to feel affection and joy for his kids. It’s never been there naturally. Given his loveless upbringing, I believe that to be true. He “only ever wanted to be the man who loves children.” But at that moment in the empty movie theater, when Bobby reached out to the sad-looking usher, the pretend love became real love, and Don felt his “heart was going to explode.” Dammit, Don, stop making me like you again.

Wrap-Up
It’s a shame that it took the Martin Luther King Jr. assassination to get Don to start loving his children. But at least now Bobby will no longer be known as the forgotten Draper kid. Thanks to him, Don’s heart grew three sizes that day.


  • Her Majesty announced death of her husband of 73 years at midday Friday and joins 'the world in mourning'
  • Philip was in Windsor after being treated for an infection and pre-existing heart condition for 28 nights
  • Prince Charles was seen leaving Windsor Castle last night after visiting his mother following Philip's death
  • Duke of Edinburgh had kept a low profile since conducting his final solo public engagement in August 2017
  • After retiring, Philip spent much of his time at Windsor and at Queen's private Sandringham estate in Norfolk
  • Duke was the longest-serving consort in British history and the oldest serving partner of a reigning monarch

Published: 22:29 BST, 9 April 2021 | Updated: 21:22 BST, 10 April 2021

The Queen is thought to have been at the bedside of her 'beloved husband' of 73 years Prince Philip when he passed away 'peacefully' at Windsor Castle yesterday.

The Duke of Edinburgh, the nation's longest-serving consort, died in his private apartment just two months and a day before what would have been his 100th birthday.

Though palace officials declined to 'go into any specifics' about the nature of his passing, it is understood his frail condition worsened overnight on Thursday and that insiders had warned he was 'gravely ill'. However, any talk of whisking the elderly duke to hospital was reportedly quickly dismissed by the Queen.

Philip, who recently spent a month being treated for an infection and a pre-existing heart condition, is thought to have died suddenly and unexpectedly, but peacefully in the company of his dear 'Lilibet'. The Telegraph reported that the duke had wanted to pass away 'in his own bed' and 'on his own terms'.

One well-placed source told the paper: 'He spent most of the four weeks he was in hospital trying to get home. They operated on his heart in a bid to give him a little longer, maybe with the 100th birthday in mind. But he didn't really care about that.' They added: 'There is no way he would have wanted to die in hospital.'

In a short but poignant statement at noon, Buckingham Palace said: 'It is with deep sorrow that Her Majesty The Queen announces the death of her beloved husband, His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

'His Royal Highness passed away peacefully this morning at Windsor Castle. Further announcements will be made in due course. The Royal Family join with people around the world in mourning his loss.'

As tributes poured in from around the world, the Palace's focus was on the royal family's aching personal bereavement. 'They are a family in mourning,' one official said last night.

Prince Charles, the heir to the throne, was seen leaving Windsor Castle hours after the news of his father's passing. The Prince of Wales, 72, drove from his Highgrove Estate in Gloucestershire to the 94-year-old monarch's Berkshire residence ahead of the public announcement of the duke's passing.

Sitting in the front passenger seat of a silver Tesla, the prince looked on as he pulled away. It is not known whether Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, had accompanied him on what is their 16th wedding anniversary.

A source close to Charles said he was 'comforted' by the fact he and his father had been in touch more regularly than ever in recent weeks and months - and that they 'had said all the things that needed to be said'.

The source said: 'It is some small comfort today that the prince was in much more regular contact with his father in recent weeks and months than he otherwise might have been. He was the only family member who was able to visit him in hospital and he was at Windsor as recently as the week before last. They spoke a great deal.'

Friends were at pains to point out that the relationship between father and son was also warmer than it had ever been. One said: 'The idea that their relationship was strained, certainly in recent years, couldn't have been further from the truth. And that's an important thing to remember in all that is being written.

'There was genuine love, affection and understanding there. Which is all anyone holds dear at the end.'

There was no immediate personal reaction from the wider Royal Family, such was their grief. But in a previously recorded tribute to his father, Philip's youngest son Prince Edward told ITV: 'My parents have been such a fantastic support to each other during all those years and all those events and all those tours and events overseas. To have someone that you confide in and smile about things that you perhaps could not in public.

'To be able to share that is immensely important.'

Recalling his humour 'which always came through and the twinkle in his eye', Edward added that he would remember his father 'for what he has done in his public life for all the organisations he has supported and influenced'. Philip's daughter Princess Anne told the broadcaster: 'Without him life will be completely different.'

Harry and Meghan posted a message on their website thanking the duke for his service. 'You will be greatly missed,' it read. The prince was last night said to be 'likely' to fly from his home in the US, although it is unclear whether his heavily pregnant wife will join him.

At around 10.40am there was a flurry of police activity at the castle before Prince Andrew, who lives closest at Royal Lodge on the Windsor estate, arrived at a back entrance to the Queen's private apartments five minutes later. Then at 11.15am another family member, believed to be Prince Edward, arrived to console their devastated mother.

News of Philip's death, after being confirmed by the on-call royal doctor and disseminated to members of the Royal Family, was relayed to the Prime Minister and relevant arms of government - via a simple message: 'Forth Bridge is down', the official codeword for the Duke of Edinburgh's death. Around the country, Union flags began to be flown at half-mast and will remain so until after the funeral next Saturday.

As the Queen lost her husband, and the country mourns one of its greatest servants, it also emerged:

  • Her Majesty will enter a period of mourning with officials planning a royal ceremonial funeral in St George's Chapel, Windsor, after Philip insisted he didn't want the 'fuss' of lying in state. But well-laid plans have been hit by Covid restrictions and the public already urged not to consider gathering in the streets for the event
  • Large crowds stood at Buckingham Palace and at Windsor Castle to lay flowers - before the Government asked them to disperse and stop laying flowers
  • Flags around the UK are at half-mast - and will remain so for at least eight days - as Boris Johnson leads tributes to the Duke of Edinburgh, who the PM said has ' helped to steer the Royal Family and the monarchy so that it remains an institution indisputably vital to the balance and happiness of our national life'
  • US president Joe Biden said: 'Jill and I are keeping the Queen and to Prince Philip's children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren in our hearts during this time
  • Commonwealth leaders including prime ministers of Australia, Canada and India thank Prince Philip for his decades of public service and send 'love and deepest condolences' to Her Majesty and all the Royal family
  • Philip's death came at a time of great turmoil for the Royal Family after Harry and Meghan's emigration to the US and bombshell Oprah interview. The Sussexes have not said if they will be returning to the UK
  • Prince Charles, Prince William and other senior royals are yet to give their own personal tributes as ordinary Britons shared their own hilarious and poignant memories of meeting Prince Philip

Prince Charles was seen leaving Windsor Castle this evening, hours after the news of his father's death broke. The Prince of Wales drove from his Highgrove Estate in Gloucestershire to the monarch's Berkshire residence this morning

Buckingham Palace announced the death of Prince Philip at just after midday Friday- and described the Queen's 'deep sorrow'

Philip has served Britain since his youth and the world is mourning his death at Windsor Castle, with the Royal Family releasing this photo and tribute shortly after his death

Good-looking and blond-haired, the Prince of Greece impressed the young Princess by jumping over the college tennis nets at their first publicised meeting. Pictured: Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh in a wedding photograph in 1947. The couple were married for 73 years (pictured in a portrait taken to mark the 60th anniversary of The Queen's Accession in 2012)

As with all major royal announcements, including births, marriages and deaths, Prince Philip's passing was marked with a statement displayed outside Buckingham Palace. It was later removed to avoid people gathering around it in the pandemic

A period of official mourning has begun that will last for a month.

Uniformed staff from the Royal Household and officers in the Armed Forces will wear mourning bands.

Following tradition, a formal notice announcing Philip's death was posted on the gates at Buckingham Palace by two mask-wearing members of staff. But it was removed within an hour in an effort to deter crowds from forming during a time of pandemic.

Palace officials asked members of the public not to gather outside any royal residence and to consider making a donation to charity instead of leaving flowers. An online book of condolence was set up on the royal website www.royal.uk.

It is likely that Covid requirements will force wholesale changes to the funeral plans, which have been in place for many decades.

Philip's coffin should have been brought from Windsor to London to lie in state, but such an undertaking, which could attract crowds, is likely to be scrapped. Instead it will remain at Windsor until the funeral.

Philip was the longest-serving consort in British history and retired from public life in 2017, largely moving to Sandringham in Norfolk. At the start of the first lockdown last year he returned to Windsor to be with his wife and according to sources they have since enjoyed some of their happiest months together.

Boris Johnson paid tribute last night to the duke, saying he would be remembered for his 'steadfast support' of the Queen.

The Prime Minister added: 'He was an environmentalist, and a champion of the natural world long before it was fashionable.

'With his Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme he shaped and inspired the lives of countless young people and at literally tens of thousands of events he fostered their hopes and encouraged their ambitions.'

Britain entered eight days of mourning ahead of Prince Philip's expected funeral next Saturday, after The Queen announced with 'deep sorrow' the death of her husband at the age of 99.

Philip was her 'strength and guide' throughout their 73-year marriage and her 69-year reign, as crowds of mourners laying flowers and tributes at palaces became so large they were told to disperse because of the pandemic.

The Duke of Edinburgh spent his final days at Windsor Castle with his wife, who he lovingly called Lilibet throughout their long life together, after a 28-night stay in hospital having been admitted in mid-February for an infection and a pre-existing heart condition.

Her Majesty announced her husband's death at midday as the Union Flag was lowered to half-mast outside Buckingham Palace, in Downing Street and on public buildings across the UK and Commonwealth. Westminster Abbey will ring its bells 99 times in his memory from 6pm.

A frail Philip was last seen leaving hospital for Windsor on March 16. His death plunges the nation and the Royal Family into mourning and brings to an end his lifetime of service to Britain and to Elizabeth, the Queen who adored him since her teens. The couple shared their 73rd wedding anniversary last November and he was due to turn 100 on June 10 this year.

Hundreds gathered in the spring sunshine at the palace and in Windsor, where many hugged and wiped away tears as they laid flowers in his memory - and left messages of love and support for the Queen and her family.

But as the crowds grew this afternoon the Government urged people to stay away and not to leave bouquets for public health reasons because Britain remains in lockdown due to Covid-19. The notice announcing the Duke of Edinburgh's death at the gates of Buckingham Palace even had to be removed to maintain social distancing, officials said, and police horses even arrived to help marshal mourners.

His funeral will be a small family service at St George's Chapel in the grounds of Windsor Castle before the duke is buried in Frogmore Gardens, where Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were laid to rest. The date has not been set officially, but sources claim it could be on Saturday, April 17.

More details will emerge in the next few days, with the plan nicknamed 'Operation Forth Bridge', but the public have already been urged to stay away to avoid spreading Covid-19 and watch it on TV at home instead. A state funeral including a flotilla of boats on the Thames to mark her husband's life looks impossible due to covid restrictions, but the Duke was said to have disliked the idea because he 'didn't want the fuss'.

The plans for the funeral were posted online by the government - before swiftly being taken down again. They appeared to confirm claims from sources.

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle today paid a short tribute to Prince Philip following news of the Duke of Edinburgh's death. In a post on their Archwell website, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex paid tribute to his grandfather with the two line message: 'Thank you for your services. You will be greatly missed.'

The 21-word post, which takes up the whole of the website's main page, was first revealed by their friend Omid Scobie, co-author of their biography Finding Freedom.

Harry is expected to return to the UK and be among the small number of mourners at the funeral, but it is much less clear whether his pregnant wife Meghan will return, weeks after the couple accused the Royal Family of racism in their bombshell Oprah interview while Philip lay in hospital.

The Duke of Edinburgh's title will eventually pass on to his youngest son, Prince Edward, it was confirmed today - but he will have to wait until after the death of his mother and his brother Charles becomes king because of royal protocols.

The cause of Philip's death has not been made public, but Philip had his first Covid-19 vaccination with the Queen on January 9, with his second one due around a week ago. It is not known if it was administered.

Parliament will be recalled from its Easter recess on Monday - a day earlier than planned - where MPs will give tributes in the Commons. The Conservatives, Labour and other major parties have suspended campaigning for the local, mayoral and police and crime commissioner elections in May out of respect for the duke.

Her Majesty, who remains at Windsor Castle with her husband, has now started an eight-day period of mourning. She will not carry out any duties, even in private, while laws will not be given the Royal Assent and affairs of state will also be paused.

Boris Johnson led the tributes to the Queen's husband and addressed the nation outside No 10 Downing Street shortly after the announcement. He said: 'We give thanks, as a nation and a kingdom, for the extraordinary life and work of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh'.

He added: 'Speaking on their golden wedding anniversary, Her Majesty said that our country owed her husband 'a greater debt than he would ever claim or we shall ever know' and I am sure that estimate is correct So we mourn today with Her Majesty The Queen.

'We remember the duke for all of this and above all for his steadfast support for Her Majesty the Queen. Not just as her consort, by her side every day of her reign, but as her husband, her 'strength and stay', of more than 70 years.

'And it is to Her Majesty, and her family, that our nation's thoughts must turn today. Because they have lost not just a much-loved and highly respected public figure, but a devoted husband and a proud and loving father, grandfather and, in recent years, great-grandfather.' Mr Johnson also praised his Duke of Edinburgh scheme, which has 'shaped and inspired the lives of countless young people'.

Boris Johnson spoke outside Downing Street to remember Philip, the love and support he had shown for the Queen and the impact he had on people all over the world

In a post on their Archwell website, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex said: 'Thank you for your services. you will be greatly missed'

A lifelong supporter of the Royal Family lays a wreath at the gates of Buckingham Palace this afternoon, hours after the Queen announced the death of her husband at the age of 99 today

An emotional mourner at Buckingham Palace after leaving flowers in memory of Prince Philip

A man thought to be a member of the armed forces stands to attention at Buckingham Palace after leaving a floral tribute

A young girl also arrived to lay a flroal tribute to Prince Philip

The sun breaks through the spring clouds above Buckingham Palace this afternoon as people stood to remember the Duke of Edinburgh, who passed away this morning

People stood in masks, two metres apart to hug and remember the Queen's husband, who dedicated his life to the country

The number of people laying wreathes became larger as the day went on leading to a plea from the palace and the Government not to gather

A woman in a mask wipes away tears outside Windsor Castle this afternoon while a mourner cried outside Buckingham Palace as the news of Philip's death sunk in

Piccadilly Circus' famous screen was given over to a tribute the the Duke of Edinburgh, as Routemaster buses passed by

A police officer speaks to members of the public holding floral tributes outside of Windsor Castle as mourners and well wishers were told to go home

His funeral will be a small family service at St George's Chapel in the grounds of Windsor Castle before the duke is buried in Frogmore Gardens, where Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were laid to rest. The date has not been set

Prince Philip waves as he arrives back at Windsor Castle after leaving King Edward VII's Hospital in London on March 16, 2021

Mourners hugged in sadness outside Buckingham Palace this afternoon just after it was revealed that Prince Philip has passed away shortly before his 100th birthday

A member of staff carries an announcement, regarding the death of Britain's Prince Philip, to be displayed on the fence of Buckingham Palace

Two emotional friends embraced as the country entered a period of mourning for the life of Prince Philip that will continue until after his funeral

Two young girls prepare to leave flowers in front of the gate at Buckingham Palace

A boy leaves flowers next to a Union flag in front of the gate outside the Duke of Edinburgh's London home

Traffic slowed and crowds gathered outside Buckingham Palace today as the world learned that the Duke of Edinburgh has died

People prepare to leave flowers in front of the gate of Buckingham Palace in London as the nation learned the sad news of Philip's death

A young girl, surrounded by flowers, ties a spring daffodil in full bloom to the railings outside Buckingham Palace this afternoon

Outside Windsor Castle, where Philip died this morning, children laid flowers outside as the Queen mourns her husband

This was the scene at Sandringham, where Philip spent much of his retirement, where Caitlin French, five, laid a bunch of flowers at the Norwich Gates


Watch the video: James Earl Ray Martin Lurther King Jr. Assassin Interview with Bill Boggs