Howell Jackson - History

Howell Jackson - History

Howell Jackson

Howell Edmunds Jackson was born in Paris, Tennessee on April 8, 1832. He graduated from Western Tennessee College in 1850, and graduated with high honors in 1852 from the University of Virginia. Jackson obtained a law degree from Cumberland Law School in 1856, passed the bar and set up a private legal practice as one of the more educated attorneys in the country. He moved to Memphis, Tennessee in 1858, and married Sophia Malloy the following year.
Although he opposed Tennessee’s secession from the Union and chose not to enter military service, he remained loyal to the South and served as a receiver of property confiscated from Union supporters. After the war, Jackson took an oath of allegiance to the Union, thus enabling him to return to his legal practice. He joined the Democratic Party, and hoped to promote the growth of manufacturing in the South. In 1873, his wife died in an epidemic of smallpox, cholera and yellow fever which hit Memphis, and he was left with four children. He later married Mary E. Harding, with whom he had three more children.
Jackson was appointed a special judge to the Madison County chancery court and, in 1875, he was appointed to the Court of Arbitration for Western Tennessee. In 1881, he was elected to the US Senate, in which he served for five years. In 1887, a year before the end of his term, Jackson was invited by President Grover Cleveland to recommend candidates for nomination to the Sixth Federal Circuit Court. To Jackson’s surprise, the President decided to appoint Jackson himself. When Cleveland insisted, Jackson resigned from the Senate and took his seat on the court. In 1891, he was elevated to the position of presiding judge of the circuit court of appeals. Two years later, in 1893, he was nominated to the US Supreme Court by President Benjamin Harrison, and was confirmed unanimously by the Senate.
Jackson served on the Court for only two years, being diagnosed with tuberculosis a year after his Court appointment. He wrote 46 opinions and four dissents, although his ill health forced him to miss most of the important cases which came before the Court during his tenure. After leaving Washington, D.C. to improve his health, he returned in 1894 to vote on one last case, dealing with the constitutionality of the income tax. The vote was tied 4-4 without Jackson’s vote, so the case was reargued. Jackson took part in the vote following the reargument, voting in favor of the income tax. Nevertheless, one of the other justices -- no one is certain of which one it was -- switched his vote, so the income tax was eventually defeated by a 5-4 vote. Jackson died less than three months later, on August 8, 1895, at his home in Nashville, Tennessee. Eighteen years after his death, the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified, giving Congress the right to pass a national income tax.


The Jackson family immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony sometime in the 1630s or 1640s with others from their old community in England.

Some sources state the family arrived in 1638 aboard the ship John of London but the family is not on the ship’s passenger list.

The Jacksons were some of the earliest settlers of the newly established parish, called Rowley, which was named after the community’s hometown in England.

In 1643, William Jackson and his family were awarded a house lot near the meetinghouse, on what is now Bradford Street, along with one and a half acres of land. William became a farmer and by 1652 he owned twelve acres and was appointed overseer of the commons.

On April 13, 1658, Elizabeth Jackson married James Howe, Jr. They had six children together and lived on a farm on what is now Linebrook Road in Topsfield, near Ipswich. The family faced many hardships when James later went blind at the age of 50.

Howe family farm, illustration published in A Short History of the Salem Village Witchcraft Trials, circa 1911

Much like other Salem Witch Trials victims, such as Bridget Bishop and Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe had been accused of witchcraft before.

In 1682, Elizabeth Howe was accused of bewitching the 10-year-old daughter of Samuel and Ruth Perley. After a disagreement between the Howes and the Perleys, the girl began suffering from fits and felt that she was being pricked by pins.

A doctor was summoned to diagnose the girl and he determined that she was bewitched. The young girl stated it was Elizabeth Howe who bewitched her. The girl continued to suffer for a few years and then died. Although Elizabeth was named as a witch, she was never arrested or brought up on charges.

According to an article in the Essex Institute Historical Collections periodical, prior to this incident, Howe was well liked in her community and it was this disagreement between Perley and Howe that damaged her reputation:

“The Elizabeth How of Ipswich, who was also executed with Mrs. Wildes, seems to have been a very inoffensive woman, and lost her life, perhaps, through a difference existing between her and a Timothy and Deborah Perley of that town, and the accusation of one Hannah Perley, probably a daughter, whose brother, in the presence of Rev. Samuel Phillips of Rowley, (and who attests the fact) once told his sister, ‘Goodwife How is a witch, say she is a witch,’ and was very properly rebuked by the Pastor at the time for his wickedness, especially as the sister had just cleared Mrs. Howe of any witchcraft then practiced against herself.”

Sometime after the girl’s death, Elizabeth Howe, who lived near the border of Ipswich, wanted to join a church in Ipswich but feared the rumors about her being a witch would prevent her from being admitted.

She enlisted the help of a local woman, the wife of Joseph Strafford, to help her join the church. The woman provided testimony on her behalf but Samuel Perley and Isaac Foster still blocked her admittance based on the suspicion that she was a witch.

This event only strengthened the rumors that Howe was a witch and soon strange stories about Howe bewitching horses and farm animals began to circulate.


Farmers First

From the Ground Up

We were winegrowers before we were winemakers. Farmers from the beginning, Jess Stonestreet Jackson, Jr. and his family buys an aging orchard in Lake County and plants chardonnay grapes (1974).

Company Founded

Changing the landscape of American wines, Kendall-Jackson debuts with the release of the vintage 1982 Vintner’s Reserve Chardonnay. Jess Jackson and his two daughters, Jenny and Laura, begin to hand-sell the wines across the country with great success.

The Jackson Family continues to be the leading producer of chardonnay.

Flavor Domaine

Inspired by the rich traditions of France, Jess establishes a “Flavor Domaine” philosophy, planting individual varieties suited to their terroir, to promote ideal attributes of each grape.

New Estates

The family purchases part of the historic Tepusquet Vineyard on the Santa Maria Bench and establishes Cambria Estate Winery the name pays homage to Barbara Banke’s Welsh heritage. (1986). Stonestreet Winery is established in Sonoma County’s Alexander Valley (1989).


Contents

Born in Jefferson County, Georgia in 1815, son of John A. Cobb [1] and Sarah (Rootes) Cobb, Howell Cobb was of Welsh American ancestry. [2] He was raised in Athens and attended the University of Georgia, where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society. He was admitted to the bar in 1836 and became solicitor general of the western judicial circuit of Georgia.

He married Mary Ann Lamar on May 26, 1835. She was a daughter of a Lamar family with broad connections in the South. [3] They would have eleven children, the first in 1838 and the last in 1861. Several did not survive childhood, including their last, a son who was named after Howell's brother, Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb.

Congressman Edit

He sided with President Andrew Jackson on the question of nullification (i.e. compromising on import tariffs), and was an effective supporter of President James K. Polk's administration during the Mexican–American War. He was an ardent advocate of extending slavery into the territories, but when the Compromise of 1850 had been agreed upon, he became its staunch supporter as a Union Democrat. [4] He joined Georgia Whigs Alexander Stephens and Robert Toombs in a statewide campaign to elect delegates to a state convention that overwhelmingly affirmed, in the Georgia Platform, that the state accepted the Compromise as the final resolution to the outstanding slavery issues. On that issue, Cobb was elected governor of Georgia by a large majority.

Speaker of the House Edit

After 63 ballots, [5] he became Speaker of the House on December 22, 1849 at the age of 34. [6] In 1850—following the July 9 death of Zachary Taylor and the accession of Millard Fillmore to the presidency—Cobb, as Speaker he would have been next in line to the presidency for two days due to the resultant vice presidential vacancy and a president pro tempore of the Senate vacancy, except he did not meet the minimum eligibility for the presidency of being 35 years old. The Senate elected William R. King as president pro tempore on July 11.

Governor of Georgia Edit

Return to Congress and Secretary of the Treasury Edit

He was elected to the 34th Congress before being appointed as Secretary of the Treasury in Buchanan's Cabinet. He served for three years, resigning in December 1860. At one time, Cobb was Buchanan's choice for his successor. [8]

A Founder of the Confederacy Edit

In 1860, Cobb ceased to be a Unionist, and became a leader of the secession movement. He was president of a convention of the seceded states that assembled in Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, 1861. Under Cobb's guidance, the delegates drafted a constitution for the new Confederacy. He served as President of several sessions of the Confederate Provisional Congress, before resigning to join the military when war erupted. [9]

American Civil War Edit

Cobb joined the Confederate army and was commissioned as colonel of the 16th Georgia Infantry. He was appointed a brigadier general on February 13, 1862, and assigned command of a brigade in what became the Army of Northern Virginia. Between February and June 1862, he represented the Confederate authorities in negotiations with Union officers for an agreement on the exchange of prisoners of war. His efforts in these discussions contributed to the Dix-Hill Cartel accord reached in July 1862. [10]

Cobb saw combat during the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battles. Cobb's brigade played a key role in the fighting during the Battle of South Mountain, especially at Crampton's Gap, where it arrived at a critical time to delay a Union advance through the gap, but at a bloody cost. His men also fought at the subsequent Battle of Antietam.

In October 1862, Cobb was detached from the Army of Northern Virginia and sent to the District of Middle Florida. He was promoted to major general on September 9, 1863, and placed in command of the District of Georgia and Florida. He suggested the construction of a prisoner-of-war camp in southern Georgia, a location thought to be safe from Union invaders. This idea led to the creation of Andersonville prison.

When William T. Sherman's armies entered Georgia during the 1864 Atlanta Campaign and subsequent March to the Sea, Cobb commanded the Georgia Reserve Corps as a general. In the spring of 1865, with the Confederacy clearly waning, he and his troops were sent to Columbus, Georgia to help oppose Wilson's Raid. He led the hopeless Confederate resistance in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865.

During Sherman's March to the Sea, the army camped one night near Cobb's plantation. [11] When Sherman discovered that the house he planned to stay in for the night belonged to Cobb, whom Sherman described in his Memoirs as "one of the leading rebels of the South, then a general in the Southern army," he dined in Cobb's slave quarters, [12] confiscated Cobb's property and burned the plantation, [13] instructing his subordinates to "spare nothing." [14]

In the closing days of the war, Cobb fruitlessly opposed General Robert E. Lee's eleventh hour proposal to enlist slaves into the Confederate Army. Fearing that such a move would completely discredit the Confederacy's fundamental justification of slavery, that black people were inferior, he said, "You cannot make soldiers of slaves, or slaves of soldiers. The day you make a soldier of them is the beginning of the end of the Revolution. And if slaves seem good soldiers, then our whole theory of slavery is wrong." [15] Cobb's opposition to Lee's proposal is dramatized in the opera Appomattox (composer Philip Glass, librettist Christopher Hampton), which debuted in Washington, D.C.'s Kennedy Center in November 2015. Cobb's role was sung by Timothy J. Bruno.

Cobb surrendered to the U.S. at Macon, Georgia on April 20, 1865.

Following the end of the Civil War, Cobb returned home and resumed his law practice. Despite pressure from his former constituents and soldiers, he refused to make any public remarks on Reconstruction policy until he received a presidential pardon, although he privately opposed the policy. Finally receiving the pardon in early 1868, he began to vigorously oppose the Reconstruction Acts, making a series of speeches that summer that bitterly denounced the policies of Radical Republicans in the U.S. Congress.

That autumn, Cobb vacationed in New York City, and died of a heart attack there. His body was returned to Athens, Georgia, for burial in Oconee Hill Cemetery. [16]

As a former Speaker of the House, his portrait had been on display in the US Capitol. The portrait was removed from public display in the Speaker's Lobby outside the House Chamber after an order issued by the Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi on June 18, 2020. [17] [18]

The Cobb family included many prominent Georgians from both before and after the Civil War era. Cobb's uncle and namesake, also Howell Cobb, had been a U.S. Congressman from 1807–1812, and then served as an officer in the War of 1812.

Cobb's younger brother, Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb, was a politician and soldier who was killed in the Civil War. Thomas Willis Cobb, a member of the United States Congress and namesake of Georgia's Cobb County, was a cousin. His niece Mildred Lewis "Miss Millie" Rutherford was a prominent educator and leader in the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Howell Cobb's daughter, Mrs. Alexander S. (Mary Ann Lamar Cobb) Erwin, was responsible for creating the United Daughters of the Confederacy's Southern Cross of Honor in 1899, which was awarded to Confederate Veterans. [19]


Howell Family Trees, Crests, Genealogies, Biographies, DNA, and More

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Missouri USGenWeb Archives
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William Harding Jackson was born on March 25, 1901 on the Belle Meade Plantation, in Belle Meade, Tennessee near Nashville, Tennessee. He was named after his father William Harding Jackson (1874–1903), who died when he was two years old. His mother was Anne Davis Richardson (1877–1954). (After her husband's death, she married Maxwell Stevenson of Hempstead, New York). [3]

Jackson attended the Fay School in Boston and St. Mark's School, an Episcopal Preparatory school in Southborough, Massachusetts. He received his undergraduate Bachelor of Arts degree (B.A.) from Princeton University (1924) and his LL.B. from Harvard Law School (1928). [1]

In 1928, Jackson joined the New York law firm of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft. In 1929 he became an Associate of Beekman, Bogue & Clark. Following the stock market crash of 1929, Jackson moved to the business and financial interest law firm of Carter, Ledyard & Milburn, where he became a full partner in 1934. [4]

During World War II, Jackson served in the United States Army (6 March 1942 – 7 July 1945) as an intelligence officer, graduating from the Army-Air Force (USAAF) Air Combat Intelligence School at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was assigned as an A-2 Assistant Intelligence officer, HQ 1st Bomber Command at 90 Church Street in New York (close to his law office), which immediately became the USAAF Anti-Submarine Command. Jackson was the principal author (along with investment banker Alexander Standish and Harold B. Ingersoll) of the USAAF Bay of Biscay Intelligence Estimate, calling for the attack on Nazi U-boats at their source on the coast of France. This was a significant turning point for the Battle of the Atlantic.

After graduation from Harrisburg in June 1942, Jackson was promoted to Major and brought into the War Department by Secretary Henry L. Stimson, where he became General Staff (Chief of Secret Intelligence reporting to General George C. Marshall from the European Theater of Operations (ETO) at COSSAC headquarters) with the cover title Chief of G-2 intelligence for 1st Army Group (FUSAG). After training on the Enigma codes at Bletchley Park, UK, he became the senior ULTRA SCIU team leader for all US armies in the ETO. [5]

Jackson achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel, and was assigned by Gen. Hap Arnold to the planning staff of Brig. Gen. Harold George, who had just taken over the USAAF Air Transport Command. He was listed as the Adjutant General for the ATC European Wing that ferried more than 7,000 U.S. aircraft to Britain during WW II. He received recognition for work rebuilding or expanding air fields in the United Kingdom for American aircraft and creating an expanded communications network for top secret secured communications (again, with Standish and Ingersoll). By summer of 1943, he was given the 'cover title' Assistant Attache for Air, stationed at the US Embassy under Ambassador Gil Winant near Grosvenor Square, next to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Shortly thereafter he was promoted to full colonel and appointed G-2 intelligence chief at 1st Army Group (FUSAG) headquarters in London's West End to work on Operation Bodyguard, the massive deception plan to make the Nazis believe the D-Day assault (Operation Overlord) would come from Scandinavia in the north and at Pas-de-Calais under the command of Gen. George S. Patton, at the narrowest point of the English Channel. He worked closely with Gen. T. J. Betts, Deputy G-2 SHAEF and then Colonel Edwin L. Sibert (G-2) at Headquarters, 1st Army located in Bristol.

After the successful D-Day feint, Jackson was made head of all OSS X-2 Special Counter-Intelligence Units (SCIU) in the ETO, traveling with 12th Army Group's forward EAGLE TAC headquarters to Luxembourg on General Omar Bradley's staff. [6] During the "Battle of the Bulge" in Dec-Jan 1945 (in addition to his duties with ULTRA and SCIU teams), on January 1, 1945 during the middle of heated battle, Jackson was named Deputy G-2 for all U.S. armies at 12th Army Group. [7]

Decorations—For service to his country and the people of Europe, Jackson was awarded the Bronze Star, the Legion of Merit with 1-OLC, and the Belgian Croix de Guerre. He is believed to be the only US Army officer below the rank of general to receive both the French Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre with Palm.

Prior to discharge from the Army and OSS, Jackson was assigned the task of studying the British Secret Intelligence Service. The study took four months working in London with MI-5, MI-6 and Sir Anthony Eden to complete a report for Gen. Marshall and Gen. Donovan on June 14, 1945. On November 14, 1945 at the request of then SecNav James Forrestal, William Harding Jackson submitted his own plan for a new central intelligence agency as an alternative to General Donovan's plan. [8]

After World War II, Jackson resigned from Carter, Ledyard & Milburn to become an investment banker and the 'Managing Partner' (1947–1955) for J.H. Whitney & Co. of New York. [9]

In 1948, George F. Kennan proposed that control over the government's directorate for political warfare should be "answerable" to the Secretary of State, suggesting that "one man must be boss" and suggesting further, that the Director of Central Intelligence and the Agency should get ". out of the business of covert psychological operations. " Kennan took the discussion to Allen W. Dulles, then in private law practice in New York, thinking Dulles would be the logical choice to head the new agency at State. Some believe this started an inter-agency squabble over just "whom" would control intelligence among the military-industrial and civilian intelligence complex. National Security Council executive director, Adm. Sidney Souers, appointed Jackson on February 13 to serve on the NSC's "Intelligence Survey Group" with Allen Dulles and Mathias Correa (an aide to then Sec. of Defense James Forrestal) for the purpose of analyzing departmental practices and inter-agency coordination. The Survey Group, known as the Dulles, Jackson, Correa Committee or Dulles Group, submitted its final report on February 28, 1949. It was a scathing criticism of CIA and its operations under Director Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, which resulted in the removal of several key persons at CIA and, eventually, the removal of Hillenkoetter. [2]

On July 18, 1950, the new Secretary of Defense, Louis Johnson, and General Omar Bradley sent a letter to President Truman nominating William Harding Jackson for Director of Central Intelligence to replace Hillenkoetter. Having known of Jackson's background, Truman added a short note to the letter and sent it to his White House aide, Donald S. Dawson, saying ". Don: Let's look into this. Tell Mr. [Averell] Harriman what we are doing. If this works out, we'll forget Gen. Smith." [10]

General Walter Bedell Smith did not want the job of DCI and tried to beg off on health issues, repeatedly. When Jackson declined because of philanthropic and business commitments in New York, Truman is said to have all but issued a direct order as commander-in-chief to General Smith, that he would become the next DCI. Smith turned to Bill Jackson as his nominee for Deputy Director of Central Intelligence to reorganize the Agency - with particular emphasis on covert activities, psychological warfare, and building a professional career Agency.

Jackson was appointed Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on August 18, 1950, and sworn-in October 7. He was the first Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (DDCI) to serve under Walter Bedell Smith (DCI), former Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1945–46) and former World War II four-star General. Smith and Jackson brought Allen W. Dulles to CIA under contract as Deputy Director/Plans (clandestine activities) in early 1951. After completing the reorganization in accordance with adoption of the Dulles Report and NSC-50, and Jackson's resignation in August 1951, Allen Dulles was promoted to DDCI to replace Jackson, later, replacing Smith as DCI in 1953. Jackson remained a contract special adviser to the DCI through both the Smith and Dulles directorships. During the Eisenhower Administration, Bill Jackson is listed by the 'White House Staff' publication [11] and by the CIA as being a 'Special Adviser' and 'Senior Consultant to the Director of Central Intelligence' (from 1951–1955).

In 1953, Jackson was appointed Chairman of President Eisenhower's Committee on International Information Activities, often known inside the Beltway as the Jackson Committee (1953–1954) which led to creation of the US Information Agency (USIA). While employed as managing director at J. H. Whitney & Co., Jackson was named 'Special Assistant to the Secretary of State' John Foster Dulles to attend the 1955 Big Four talks in Geneva. [12] In December 1955 Jackson resigned from J. H. Whitney & Co. In February 1956 Jackson was appointed special assistant to President Eisenhower for psychological warfare. He succeeded Nelson Rockefeller who had resigned in December. [13] On 1 March Jackson was appointed by Eisenhower as Special Assistant to the President for Foreign Affairs to "assist in the coordination and timing of the execution of foreign policies involving more than one department or agency. He will represent the President on the Operations Coordinating Board (as Vice Chairman) and will attende meetings of the Cabinet and the National Security Council." President Eisenhower appointed Jackson to additional responsibilities serving as Acting United States National Security Advisor from September 1, 1956 until January 7, 1957. [14] [15]

Jackson's first wife, Elizabeth Lyman (married 1929) was the ex-wife of Thomas Rice of Dover she brought two children Thomas Rice, Jr. and Lyman Rice to their marriage. Jackson and Elizabeth had two more sons, William Harding Jackson, Jr. and Richard Lee Jackson. They divorced in 1946 after Jackson returned from World War II.

At age 39, Jackson was elected the youngest president to serve (1940–1949) on the board of directors of The Society of the New York Hospital, one of America's oldest hospitals founded by King George III in 1771, and was nominated to the National Academy of Sciences. [16] After the war, Jackson was elected to the boards of Bankers Trust, the John Hay Whitney Foundation, the New York Hospital for Special Surgery, and the Menninger Foundation.


West Plains, Missouri

The history of West Plains can be traced back to 1832, when settler Josiah Howell (after whom Howell County is named) created the first settlement in the region known as Howell Valley. West Plains was so named because the settlement was on a prairie in a westerly direction from the nearest town, Thomasville. [10]

The American Civil War Edit

The location of West Plains led to nearly constant conflict due to the proximity to what was then the border between the Union and Confederacy. West Plains was largely burned to the ground, and Howell County as a whole was devastated. No major battles occurred in West Plains or Howell County, but much of the devastation came from constant guerrilla warfare. [12]

Confederate Brigadier General James Haggin McBride gave residents an ultimatum to either join the Confederate army or to flee the area. An overwhelming majority of Howell County residents chose to flee, and over 90% of the population had fled by the time the war was over. [13] Many, however, also chose to fight for the Confederacy, as McBride promised to protect his soldiers' property and loved ones. Men who spoke out against the Confederacy were arrested, as martial law had been declared by McBride.

West Plains native William Monks was a scout for the "North" (Union army) and recounted his tales of the Civil War in his 1907 book "A History of Southern Missouri and Northern Arkansas." In that memoir, Monks recounts many depradations that occurred during the war and how the Confederates referred to those faithful to the Union as "lopeared Dutch" (many Missourians who were "Union men" were German).

20th century Edit

In 1903, African Americans were driven out of West Plains under threat of violence. [14]

The Great Depression era Edit

As was the case with many other locations, the Great Depression hit West Plains in the 1930s. Citizens had little knowledge of what was going on with the national scene, except for what Neathery says in his book, "every place was a boom town, [but] in some places things were going bust as well." The first bank to fail in West Plains was the Farmers Savings Bank in West Plains circa 1926, and the lack of the present-day Federal Deposit Insurance Company meant that some people initially lost whatever wealth was deposited.

West Plains Dance Hall explosion Edit

On April 13, 1928, [15] for reasons still unknown, a violent explosion occurred in downtown West Plains. About 60 people had gathered in the Bond Dance Hall, which was on the second floor of a building on East Main Street. The explosion was reported to be felt for miles, even in Pomona, which is approximately ten miles from West Plains. Windows were shattered throughout the block, and cars were also warped on the street. The explosion also damaged the nearby Howell County Courthouse so badly that it was vacated and left until late 1933, when it was demolished by the Civil Works Administration. [16] Thirty-seven people were killed in the explosion, and 22 people were injured. Twenty of those killed were never positively identified, but buried in a mass grave at Oak Lawn Cemetery in the southeast part of town. They are memorialized by the Rock of Ages monument, erected on October 6, 1929. [17] The explosion has also been remembered in a folk song recorded 30 years later. [18]

The cause of the explosion is still a topic of controversy nearly a century after the blast. Numerous causes for the explosion have been offered, but a definitive story has never been proven to be true. The most widely accepted theory is that the explosion somehow originated from leaking gasoline in a garage owned by J. W. Wiser, which happened to be on the floor below. Because Wiser was at the garage at the time, some have speculated that the blast was intentionally caused by Wiser as a suicide attempt, which his wife reportedly refused to acknowledge. In addition, the late West Plains native Robert Neathery explained in his 1994 book, West Plains As I Knew It, that a truck containing dynamite parked in the garage may have been the cause, indirectly part of a crime in which someone shot Wiser and set a fire to cover up the crime, and the dynamite exploded. [19]

The event is fictionalized in the short novel The Maid's Version by Daniel Woodrell, which is about a similar dance hall explosion in the fictional town of West Table. [20]

West Plains Badgers Edit

In 1936, West Plains gained its own Minor League Baseball team named the West Plains Badgers within the Northeast Arkansas League. They would move the same year to Caruthersville, Missouri where they became the Caruthersville Pilots. In 1940, they would move to Batesville, Arkansas, where they were known as the Batesville Pilots. The team disbanded in 1941.

After the Depression Edit

On the evening of April 2, 1982, a long-track F4 tornado struck the West Plains area, beginning in Ozark County and ending near what was the airport at the time. Many homes and businesses were significantly damaged or leveled by the tornado, which killed three and injured at least 28 as it hit the West Plains Country Club and nearby homes, as well as businesses located on U.S. Route 63. [21] [22]

The downtown area of West Plains, namely Court Square, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 17, 2003. [23] The Downtown Revitalization Economic Assistance for Missouri (DREAM) Act also opened up funding for renovations and improvements for certain downtown buildings.

Climate Edit

West Plains is characterized by four distinct seasons and is located near the northern border of a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), as defined by the Köppen climate classification system as such, West Plains tends to be exceptionally humid in the late summer. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 33 °F (1 °C) in January to 77 °F (25 °C) in July. On average, there are 41 days with highs over 90 °F (32 °C), three with highs over 100 °F (38 °C), 13 days where the temperature does not rise above freezing, and 2 nights of sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows.

Climate data for West Plains (West Plains Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 76
(24)
82
(28)
85
(29)
91
(33)
95
(35)
102
(39)
108
(42)
105
(41)
102
(39)
93
(34)
84
(29)
73
(23)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 44.0
(6.7)
49.5
(9.7)
58.9
(14.9)
68.9
(20.5)
76.1
(24.5)
84.2
(29.0)
89.1
(31.7)
89.4
(31.9)
80.7
(27.1)
69.8
(21.0)
57.9
(14.4)
45.7
(7.6)
67.8
(19.9)
Average low °F (°C) 22.3
(−5.4)
26.2
(−3.2)
34.0
(1.1)
43.4
(6.3)
52.6
(11.4)
61.1
(16.2)
65.7
(18.7)
64.5
(18.1)
55.9
(13.3)
44.3
(6.8)
34.6
(1.4)
24.9
(−3.9)
44.1
(6.7)
Record low °F (°C) −18
(−28)
−9
(−23)
4
(−16)
18
(−8)
31
(−1)
40
(4)
51
(11)
40
(4)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
7
(−14)
−13
(−25)
−18
(−28)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.87
(73)
2.95
(75)
4.45
(113)
4.49
(114)
4.84
(123)
3.76
(96)
3.38
(86)
3.30
(84)
4.04
(103)
4.01
(102)
4.90
(124)
3.80
(97)
46.80
(1,189)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 2.6
(6.6)
2.7
(6.9)
2.1
(5.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.6
(4.1)
9.1
(23)
Source: NOAA (extremes 1948–present) [26]
Historical population
Census Pop.
1870130
1880351 170.0%
18902,091 495.7%
19002,902 38.8%
19102,914 0.4%
19203,178 9.1%
19303,335 4.9%
19404,026 20.7%
19504,918 22.2%
19605,836 18.7%
19706,893 18.1%
19807,741 12.3%
19909,522 23.0%
200010,866 14.1%
201011,986 10.3%
2019 (est.)12,304 [6] 2.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [27]

The West Plains Micropolitan Statistical Area consists of Howell County.

2010 census Edit

As of the census [5] of 2010, there were 11,986 people, 5,001 households, and 3,012 families residing in the city. The population density was 900.5 inhabitants per square mile (347.7/km 2 ). There were 5,509 housing units at an average density of 413.9 per square mile (159.8/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 95.04% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.05% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.76% from other races, and 1.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.21% of the population.

There were 5,001 households, of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.8% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.93.

The median age in the city was 36.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18 10.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24 24.1% were from 25 to 44 22.1% were from 45 to 64 and 18.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 45.8% male and 54.2% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [7] of 2000, there were 10,866 people, 4,518 households, and 2,909 families residing in the city. The population density was 879.0 people per square mile (339.4/km 2 ). There were 5,072 housing units at an average density of 410.3 per square mile (158.4/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 95.72% White, 0.73% African American, 0.96% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.65% of the population.

There were 4,518 households, out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 21.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,122, and the median income for a family was $30,369. Males had a median income of $24,705 versus $17,312 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,019. About 15.1% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.2% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over.

West Plains municipal government is based on the mayor–council system. According to city code, the city council consists of four councilmembers and the mayor, who presides over each meeting. Council members are elected by the city to four-year terms with no term limits. [28] As of August 28, 2012, [3] the mayor of West Plains is Jack Pahlmann, who was previously the mayor pro-tem of West Plains. Pahlmann took the place of longtime West Plains mayor Joe Paul Evans, who died from heart problems ten days before. [29] On April 7, 2015, Pahlmann was elected as mayor after running unopposed. [30]

In 2017 Fidelity Communications hired DM Web Dev Group to run an astroturfing campaign to discredit the city run fiber broadband service through the website stopcityfundedinternet.com. [31]

Public schools Edit

Public schools are provided by the West Plains R-7 School District, providing education to more than 2,000 students.

  • West Plains Elementary School (PreK-4)
  • West Plains Middle School (5–8)
  • West Plains High School (9–12)
  • South Fork Elementary School (PreK-6)

In addition, some parts of the immediate area surrounding West Plains are covered by rural schools. After eighth grade, students from the rural schools may merge into West Plains High School.

  • Fairview Elementary School (K-8)
  • Glenwood Elementary School (K-8)
  • Howell Valley Elementary School (K-8)
  • Junction Hill Elementary School (K-8)
  • Richards Elementary School (K-8)

Private education Edit

Private education is also provided in the West Plains area, primarily by religious institutions. Private schools in the West Plains area include the following:

Higher education Edit

There is one higher education institution located in West Plains. Missouri State University–West Plains is a community college spread across the center of town. The school has multiple degree programs but is primarily focused on its Associate of Arts degree program. The college has ca.1,800 students enrolled in part-time or full-time studies. [32]

Public library Edit

West Plains has a lending library, the West Plains Public Library. [33]

The West Plains area is served by U.S. Route 63, which runs along the western and southern edges of the city. U.S. 63 is a four-lane expressway from the 60/63 interchange near Cabool to Route ZZ in the extreme southeastern part of West Plains, then becomes a 2+1 road going southeast. Route 63's path through the city is often colloquially referred to as "the bypass", and is officially known as Jan Howard Expressway between Porter Wagoner Boulevard and Bill Virdon Boulevard. There are eight traffic lights along U.S. 63. One exit exists on U.S. 63 in the city near McFarland Street, which allows drivers to exit onto Business Route 63.

Business Route 63 consists of Porter Wagoner Boulevard, a majority of Main Street, and Bill Virdon Boulevard before it ends at an intersection with the eastern end of Jan Howard Expressway. There are four traffic lights along Business Route 63.

West Plains is also served by U.S. Route 160, which formerly ran southwest to northeast through the city it has since been rerouted around the city concurrent with U.S. 63. It enters city limits near the Southern Hills business district, where it is named Preacher Roe Boulevard to its intersection with Main Street. Preacher Roe Boulevard, named after longtime West Plains resident and former baseball player Preacher Roe, has four lanes to its intersection with U.S. 63. The route follows U.S. 63 to Gibson Avenue, where it turns right crossing Porter Wagoner Boulevard and becoming Missouri Avenue, a left onto Concord Road, and a right onto Independence Dr, which becomes Joe Jones Boulevard, after which the route exits city limits and carries traffic on a two-lane route toward Alton.

In addition to U.S. Routes 63 and 160, West Plains is also served by Routes 14 and 17 and Routes K, CC, JJ, PP, ZZ, AB, and BB. Many traffic lights in the city were recently upgraded to have flashing-yellow arrow signals for left-turning intersections.

One railroad, dated to 1882, passes through town on a BNSF Railway line from Springfield, Missouri to Memphis, Tennessee.

Airport Edit

West Plains is also served by the West Plains Regional Airport, which is located in nearby Pomona, about 10 miles north of the city on U.S. 63.

  • Carmichael Field (located along Missouri Avenue behind the newly renovated MSU-WP Shoe Factory Lofts, host to Mighty Mites Football)
  • Butler Children's Park
  • People's Park (site of the City Pool)
  • Soccer Fields (host of West Plains Soccer Association)
  • Galloway Park (host to the Halloween "Haunting the Hallows" event)

West Plains is served by several media outlets. In addition to receiving most television stations coming from Springfield, one low-power television station emanates from West Plains, as do eight radio stations. The city also has one daily newspaper, the West Plains Daily Quill.

Newspaper Edit

Radio Edit

West Plains is served by several radio stations. The Ozark Radio Network, which is owned by Robert Neathery's granddaughter and her husband, covers Dent, Douglas, Howell, Oregon, Ozark, Reynolds, Ripley, Shannon, Texas, and Wright counties as well as adjacent sections of Christian, Taney, and Webster counties in Missouri and Baxter, Fulton, Izard, Marion, Searcy, Sharp, and Stone counties as well as adjacent sections of Boone, Independence, Lawrence, and Randolph counties in Arkansas. The network comprises

    -93.9 FM (Q94, Jack FM) broadcasting Classic Rock -102.5 FM (KDY) broadcasting New Country -96.9 FM (The Fox) broadcasting Urban and Adult Contemporary -100.3 FM (Cool Classic County) broadcasting Classic Country -1450 AM/105.1 FM (News Radio) broadcasting News Talk Radio

Also located in West Plains are:

  • KSMW-90.3 FM (repeater of KSMU) broadcasting NPR -100.9 FM (The Train) broadcasting 60s, 70s, and 80s Oldies -107.1 FM (K-LOVE) broadcasting Contemporary Christian

KHOM and KBMV are stations in the E-Communications network, based in Thayer, Missouri.


Deductions

Five deductions are allowed by New Jersey State Statutes: senior citizens, surviving spouses of qualified senior citizens, veterans, veteran’s widows / widowers and disabled persons. Information regarding application forms and qualifications may be obtained by contacting the Tax Assessors office.

New Jersey Property Tax Relief Programs

  • Property tax reimbursement (senior freeze)
    • To check status of a filed application: 1 (800) 882-6597
    • To ask questions: 1 (800) 882-6597
    • To listen to information or order an application: 1 (800) 323-4400
    • Infoline: 1 (888) 238-1233
    • TTY users: 1 (800) 286-6613

    Jesse Jackson, PUSH and Democratic Politics

    Jackson’s new venture, People United to Save Humanity (PUSH), was similar to Operation Breadbasket, but its scope expanded with its leader’s passions. In 1972 Jackson led a group to the Democratic National Convention that managed to oust Chicago Mayor Richard Daley’s Illinois delegation.

    In 1984 Jackson ran for the Democratic presidential nomination, winning five primaries and caucuses and more than 18 percent of votes cast. However, a comment he made to a reporter about Jews and his relationship with Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan led to controversy during the campaign.

    Jackson’s multiracial National Rainbow Coalition grew out of his work in the 1984 campaign and merged with PUSH in 1996. Jackson ran for president again in 1988 and won 11 primaries and caucuses and nearly 20 percent of the vote.


    The first ski town was built at Teton Pass in 1937 and Snow King Resort was established in 1939. Teton County now boasts three excellent ski areas including Jackson Hole Mountain Resort in Teton Village, Grand Targhee Ski and Summer Resort located on the West slope of the Tetons, and Snow King Resort located right in the Town of Jackson.

    The Town of Jackson is the county seat of Teton County and the only incorporated municipality in the region. Less than 3% of land in Teton County is privately owned. 97% of the 2,697,000 acres in Teton County is federally or state owned / managed.


    Watch the video: Michael Jackson - HIStory Tour In Copenhagen Remastered